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A & P chapter 16

Organs in the respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Upper respiratory tract nose, pharynx, larynx
Lower respiratory tract trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Diaphragm muscle that separates the thorax and abdomen-note that is assists in respiration but it is NOT included in the respiratory organs listed above
Main functions of the respiratory organs distribute and exchange gases; filters; warms; humidifies; olfaction (smelling)
Nose lined with respiratory mucosa
Sinuses Hollow area in skull around nose that help lighten skull bones and provide resonance to voice
four pairs of sinuses frontal (above eyes); Sphenoid and Ethmoid (on each side of the nose between the eyes) and Maxillary (between the eyes and the uppper jaw )
Turbinates and Conchae three shelf-like structures inside the nose that increase surface area in the nasal cavity
Rhinitis inflammation of nasal mucosa by allergies or infection
Nasal polyps painless, noncancerous tissue growths from the nasal mucosa
Epistaxis nosebleed
Nostrils nosebleed
nostrils external nares
pharynx throat
subdivisions of the pharynx Masopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Pharyngitis sore throat or inflammation or infection of the pharynx
Eustachian tubes auditory tubes that connect the middle ears with the pharynx, NOTE:they are not part of the structures of the larynx
Larynx Thyroid cartilage; vocal cords; epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage called commonly "Adam's apple"; largest cartilage section in the larynx
Epiglottis lid-like cartilage overhanging the entrance to the larynx; closes off larynx when swallowing and helps to prevent food from entering the trachea
Vocal cords two short fibrous bands that are responsible for speech and vocal sounds
Laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
Epiglottitis life-threatening condition caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) infection that can strick children bwtween3-7, and can be prevented by the Hib vaccine
Croup non-life-threatening laryngitis in young children caused by the parainfluenza viruses, has bark-like cough
Upper respiratory infection (URI) Inflammation of any of the structures in teh upper respiratory system - nose, pharynx, or larynx and can include all of them at once
Respiratory mucosa mucous membrane that lines the air distribution tubes in the respiratory tree (down to the opening of the alveoli)
Characteristics of respiratory mucosa Produces mucous that provides nonspecific immunity; includes cilia that move mucous upward and out for removal; NO GAS EXCHANGE CAN OCCUR THROUGH THIS LAYER
Functions of the respiratory mucosa help trap contaminants in the inspired air; help humidify inspired air; help warm inspired air NOTE:is not the barrier between blood capillaries and alveoli because it is only lines the tubes in the respiratory system
Respiratory membrane the single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the alveoli
Characteristics of respiratory membrance single cell layers allows EXCHANGE of gases across alveolus and into capillary
What is required for the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide): thin, single cell walls of alveoli; thin, single cell wall of capillary and respiratory membrane
Trachea windpipe
Characteristics of trachea lined with respiratory mucosa; has 15-20 C-shaped cartilage rings; single tube that brings air into the lungs
Bronchial tree the branching of tubes off of the trachea; go from bronchi to bronchioles (larger to smaller)
difference between bronchi and bronchioles bronchioles do NOT have cartilage
Alveolus (plural alveoli) microscopic "air sacs" at the end of the smallest bronchioles where the gas exchange occurs
The last part of the respiratory tree alveoli
movement and exchange of gases-four stages pulmonary ventilation-->external respiration--> internal respiration-->cellular respiration
pulmonary ventilation breathing or moving air in and out of the lungs-NOTE: no exchange of gases
Two parts of pulmonary ventilation inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation)
External respiration exchange of gases between lungs and blood or between blood and lungs), or the movement of oxygen from the alveoli to the capillaries and carbon dioxide from the capillaries to the alveoli
Internal respiration exchange of gases between the blood and the cells (or between cells and blood),or the movement of oxygen from the alveoli to the capillaries and carbon dioxide from teh capillaries to the alveoli
Cellular respiration the actual use of oxygen by the cells and occurs entirely within the cells
respiratory control centers in the brain located in the medualla oblongata
Hyperventilation rapid, deep ventiilation or breathing
Hypoventilation slow and shallow breathing
Dyspnea labored or difficult breathing
Apnea stoppage of breathing (but breathing can resume like sleep apnea)
Respiratory arrest failure to resume breathing after a period of apnea
Cheyne-Stokes repiration type of respiration that is an alternation of hyperventilation and stoppage in breathing that usually occurs in critically ill people
Bronchitis acute inflammation of the bronchi
Pneumonia acute inflammation of the lungs
Tuberculosis infection caused by Mycobaacterium tuberculosis; highly contagious and spread through breathing or swallowing droplets contaminated with the TB bacillus
Surfactant Substance the lines the inside of the alveoli that acts as lubricant to keep alveoli from collapsing
Respiratory distress syndrome (RSD) absence or impairment of surfactant the lines the alveoli-can have infant form (IRSD) iin which l ack of surfactant compromises respiration or adult (ARSD) that occurs when surfactant production is impaired or removed by exposure to smoke, chemicals, etc.
Pleura Covering of the outer surface of the lungs
Pleuritis inflammation of the pleura
Atelectasis collapse of teh lung tissue
Pneumothorax puncture of the pleura that causes collapse of the lung
Hemothorax presence of blood in the pleural space
Two types of pulmonary disorders restrictive and obstructive
restrictive pulmonary disorders loss of stretch of the alveoli and causes inhibition of inspiraton-example: fibrosis of the lung tissue
Obstructive pullmonary disorders obstruction of the airways and causes difficulty with both inspiration and expiration
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) number one cause is tobacco use, but can occure from damage due to air pollution, asthma adn infections
Emphusema destruction of the alveoli and compromise of teh exchange of gases
Asthma spasms of the smooth muscle in bronchial tubes with narrowing and difficulty breathing
Heimlich maneuver (Abdominal Thrust) technique that used to open a blocked windpipe
Created by: carladanette