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Respiratory, Digestive, Acid-Base Balance

microscopic air sac within the lung, where gas exchange takes place alveolus
cessation of breathing after expiration apnea
the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs brochial tree
a primary branch of the trachea that leads to the lung bronchus
a small branch of a bronchus within the lung bronchioles
the utilization of O2 by the cells to produce ATP, CO2 and H20 cellular respiration
ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx cricoid cartilage
difficult or labored breathing dyspnea
normal (quiet) breathing eupnea
exchange of gases between alveoli and blood external respiration
prolonged rapid and deep breathing hyperventilation
decrease in respiratory rate, very slow and shallow breathing hypoventilation
deficiency of O2 in arterial blood hypoxemia
deficiency of O2 reaching the tissues and cells hypoxia
deficiency of O2 reaching the tissues and cells because of diminished blood flow ischemic hypoxia
deficiency of O2 reaching the tissues and cells because of diminished RBCs and hemoglobin anemic hypoxia
exchange of gases between the blood and tissues (or body cells) internal respiration
process of mechanically moving air into and out of the lungs pulmonary ventilation
the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells respiration
one inspiration followed by one expiration respiratory cycle
the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules surface tension
increased breathing (frequency) but not necessarily an increase in tidal volume tachypnea
Name the structures of the upper respiratory tract. nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx
Name the structures of the lower respiratory tract. trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
bone and cartilage with 2 nostrils for air passage nose
hollow space behind the nose nasal cavity
separates nasal cavity into left and right halves (is composed of bone and cartilage) nasal septum
bones that curl out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity; they increase surface area and support the mucouse membrane which lines the cavity nasal conchae
lines the nasal cavity and contains pseudostratified ciliated epithelium rich in goblet cells mucous membrane
specialized epilthelial cells located superiorly in the nasal cavity olfactory receptor cells
air filled spaces located within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones and open into the nasal cavity paranasal sinuses
(throat) behind the oral cavity and between the nasal cavity and the larynx pharynx
name the three parts of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
these tubes provide a connection to the middle ear and permit equalization of pressure between the external and middle ear eustachian tubes
this structure houses the vocal cords and is called the voice box larynx
Name the components of the larynx. thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, cricothyroid membrane, vocal folds (cords), glottis and epiglottis
superior large fused cartilage forming the anterior and lateral wall of the larynx; the adams apple) thyroid cartilage
the purpose of this structure made-up of 16-20 C-shaped cartilage rings, is to conduct air to the lungs trachea
Describe the breakdown of the bronchial tree. Right and left primary bronchi come off of the trachea, primary are broken down into secondary bronchi *three branches on the right and two branches on the left* (one for each lobe of the lung). secondary divide into smaller tubes and become bronchioles
what structures do bronchioles branch into? alveolar ducts, which connect to thin walled out-pouchings called alveolar sacs
where does gas exchange take place? alveoli
spongy, cone-shaped organs composed of tubular structures and alveoli bound together by elastic connective tissue lungs
what are the lungs encased by? ribs and diaphragm
What is the difference between visceral and parietal pleura? visceral pleura is a serous membrane attached to the surace of the lung. parietal pleura lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity
the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura that contains a thin layer of seous fluid which serves as a lubricant to allow a sliding movement between the lungs and chest wall intrapleural space
number of lobes in the right lung three
name of the indentation in the left lung where the heart lies cardiac notch
this is considered the main muscle of inspiration diaphragm
true or false. during the contraction of the diaphragm on inspiration, the structure lowers as a whole true
muscles that aid in pulling the thoracic cage further upward and outward accessory muscles, such as the pectoralis minor and sternocleidomastoid
true or false. becase the pressure inside the lung is greater than the atmospheric pressure, air will rush in until the pressures are equalized false. pressure inside the lung is less than that of atmospheric pressure
paralysis is caused by injures that occure above which spinal nerve C-3
thre process of pushing air out of the lungs expiration
how are respiratory volumes measured? spirometry
the volume of air that is inspired or expired suring a normal respiratory cycle tidal volume; 500mL
constitutes the maximum air that can be inspired beyond normal tidal inspiration during forced inspiration inspiratory reserve volume; 3000-3300mL
constitutes the maximum amount of air that can be expired beyond normal tidal expiration during forced expiration expiratory reserve volume; 1100-1200mL
constitutes the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximum forced expiration residual volume
the maximum amount of air that a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible vital capacity; 4500-5000mL
Vital Capacity= Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity 5700-6200mL; will vary with age, sex and body size
total lung capacity = vital capacity + residual volume
true or false. respiratory muscles are under voluntary control true
this is located in the brainstem and controls both inspiration and expiration respiratory center
this is responsible for the rhythmicity of breathing medulla oblongata
pneumotaxic area and responsible for the rate of breathing; regulates the duration of each inspiratory burst the pons
what regulates the depth of breathing inflation reflex
the largest amount of CO2 is transported in the form of what? bicarbonate ions
an solution that has a pH less than 7.0 acid
negative charged ions anion
an solution has a pH greater than 7.0 base
the conjugate base of a weak acid buffer
positive charged ions cation
CO2 carbon dioxide
C3H6O3 lactic acid
substance that dissolves in water and results in a solution that conducts an electric current electrolyte
HCo3- bicarbonate
H2Co3 Carbonic acid
defined as balance. homeostasis
H+ hydrogen
an atom or group of bonded atoms which have lost or gained on or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged ion
describes the loss of electorns by a molecule, atom or ion oxidation
stands for power of H, or the amount of H+ ions, acids, or bases take or contribute n solution. pH
describes the gain of electorns by a molecule, atom, or ion reduction
in human physiology, the primary electrolytes are (seven) sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, cholride, phosphate, hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)
pH 7 neutral solution
normal blood pH range 7.35-7.45
the utilization of nutrients by living tissue and cells assimilation
the movement of nutrients into the circulatory system absorption
a mass of food and saliva that is ready to be swallowed bolus
a semi-fluid mixture of food and gastric juice chyme
the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of the resulting nutrients by cells digestion
the elimination of indigestible substances from the colon defecation
the taking in of food into the mouth ingestion
the process of breaking food down into smaller pieces and mixing with digestive juices without altering the chemical composition mechanical digestion
how long is the digestive system, extending from mouth to anus about 9 meters long
the two main groups of the digestive system alimentary canal and accessory organs
structures of the alimentary canal mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
structures of accessory organs salivary glands, teeth and tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
the walls of the alimentary canal consist of four distinct layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa
wave-like motion that propels food through the alimentary canal toward the anal sphincter peristalsis
forms the roof of the oral cavity hard and soft palate
structure that prevents any food or liquids from entering the nasal cavities above the mouth uvula
responsible for the MECHANICAL digestion teeth
these teeth begin erupting around 6 motnhs of age diciduous
these teeth begin erupting around 6 years of age permanent
two types of secretory cells within the salivary glands serous cells and mucous cells
what do serous cells secrete amylase
three pairs of major salivary glands parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
stomach is divided into three areas fundus, body, and pyloric region
as the pH increases, the amount of H+ ions.. decreases
enlarged vein inside or outside of the rectum hemorrhoids
surgically created opening ostomy
a mouth-like opening stoma
presence of fecal mass too large or hard to pass voluntarily impaction
lack of voluntary control of defication incontinence
when inserting an NG tube, the physician should be notified after... two failed attempts
Created by: 1127174238