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# Chapter 2 Terms

### APES Chapter 2 Terms

Designed to test the effects of independent variables on a dependent variable by changing only one variable at a time. There should be two setups (experimental and a control) that are identical expect for the variable being tested. controlled experiment
Drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning. If ...Then...Therefore... deductive reasoning
data that occurs in response to the independent variable dependent variable
The idea that a statement can be said to be scientific if someone can clearly state a method or test by which it might be disproved. disprovability
something that is known based on actual experience and observation fact
an explanation set forth in a manner that can be tested and disproved. A tested hypothesis is accepted until and unless is has been disproved. hypothesis
the variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate. Example: You are interested in how stress affects heart rate in humans. Your independent variable would be the stress and the dependent variable would be the heart rate. independent variable
drawing a general conclusion from a limited set of specific observations. If a child puts his or her hand into a bag of candy and withdraws three pieces, all of which are red, he or she may conclude that all the candy is red. inductive reasoning
(1)a conclusion derived by logical reasoning from premises and/or evidence, or (2)a conclusion, based on evidence, arrived at by insight or analogy, rather than derived solely by logical processes. inference
a deliberately simplified explanation, often physical, mathematical, pictorial, or computer simulated, of complex phenomena or processes. model
information obtained through one or more of the five senses or through instruments that extend the senses. Some remote sensing instruments measure infrared intensity, which we do not see, and convert the measurement into colors, which we do see. observations
definitions that tell you what you need to look for or do in order to carry out an operation such as measuring, constructing, or manipulating operational definitions
initial definitions and assumptions premises
the likelihood that an event will occur probability
ideas that are claimed to have scientific validity but are inherently untestable and/or lack empirical support and/or were arrived at through faulty reasoning or poor scientific methodology psuedoscientific
data distinguished by qualities or attributes that cannot be or are not expressed as quantities. For example, blue and red are qualitative data about the electromagnetic spectrum. qualitative data
data expressed as numbers or numerical measurements. For example, the wavelengths of specific colors of blue and red light (460 and 650 nanometers, respectively) are quantitative data about the electromagnetic spectrum quantitative date
a set of systematic methods by which scientists investigate natural phenomena, including gathering data, formulating and testing hypotheses, and developing scientific theories and laws. scientific method
a grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence, in contrast to a guess, a hypthesis, a prediction, a notion, or a belief. scientific theory
scientific models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of related phenomena and are supported by consistent and extensive evidence theories
measured characteristics that may assume any one of a set of values variable
Created by: MrsLigon