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Nutrition

Vitamins

VitaminFunctionDeficiency ToxicitySource
VITAMIN D - Maintains Serum Calcium Concentrations by: Stimulationg GI absorption, Release of calcium from the bones, calcium reabsorption from the kidneys Rickets in children-Malfunction of bone dvlpmt. Teeth decay & malformation, Osteomalacia (in adults) Bone softening, easy fractures, Muscles-involuntary twitching Kidney stones, permanent Kidney damage, muscle/bone weakness, excessive bleeding, no appetite, headaches, thirst, calcification of soft tissue (blood vessels, kidneys, heart, lungs), death By sunlight on the skin Liver, fatty fish, egg yolks, fortified milk, RTE cereals & margerine
VITAMIN E - antioxidant to protect Vitamin A and protect cell membranes Increased RBC hemolysis In infants: anemia, edema & skin lesions Nontoxic high doses enhance action of anticoagulant meds Vegetable oils, margarine, salad dressing, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, dark green vegies, whole grains, fortified cereals
VITAMIN K - blood clotting proteins, bone protein that regulates blood calcium Hemorrhaging NONE bacterial synthesis, green leafy veggies, liver, eggs, cabbage family veggies
VITAMIN B1 "THIAMIN" Co enzyme energy metabolism promotes normal appetite and nervous system functioning Beriberi - mental confusion, decrease in memory, fatigue, apathy, muscle weakness and wasting, painful calf muscles, anorexia, weight loss, edema, Enlarged heart, Sudden death from heart failure NONE whole grains, enriched breads and cereals, liver, nuts, wheat germ, pork, dried peas and beans
VITAMIN B2 "RIBOFLAVIN" Coenzyme in energy metabolism, Aids in the conversion of tryptophan into niacin Dermatitis, cheilosis, glossitis, photophobia, reddening of cornea none Milk, dairy products, whole grain, enriched breads/cereals, eggs, meat, green leafy veggies
VITAMIN B3 "NIACIN" Coenzyme in energy metabolism, promotes normal nervous system functioning Pellagra (the 4 D's) Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death if untreated flushing, liver damage, gastric ulcers, low blood pressure, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting all protein foods, whole grain and enriched breads & cereals
VITAMIN B6 coenzyme in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Helps covert tryptophan to niacin. Helps produce insulin, hemoglobin, myelin sheaths and antibodies Dermatitis, cheilosis, glossitis, abnormal brain wave pattern, convulsions and anemia depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches, sensory neuropathy characteristic Meats, fish, poultry, fruits, green leafy veggies, whole grains, nuts, dried peas and beans
FOLATE Coenzyme in DNA synthesis, therefor vital for new cell synthesis and transmission of inherited characteristics Glossitis, diarrhea, macrogytic anemia, depression, mental confusion, fainting, fatigue Too much can mask B12 deficiency LEAFY VEGGIES, DRIED PEAS AND BEANS, SEEDS, LIVER, ORANGE JUICE, SOME FRUITS, BREADS, CERUEALS AND OTHER GRANIN ARE FORTIFIED WITH FOLIC ACID
VITAMIN B12 Coenzyme in the synthesis of new cells. Activates folate, maintains nerve cells, helps metabolize some fatty acids and amino acids GI CHANGES: glossitis, anorexia, indigestion, recurring diarrhea or constipation & weight loss. MACROCYTIC ANEMIA: pallor, dyspnea, weakness, fatgue, and palpitations. NEUROLOGIC CHANGES: paresthesia of the hands and feet, decreased sense of position NONE Animal products: meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, milk dairy products, eggs, some fortified foods
PANTOTHENIC ACID part of coenzyme A used in energy metabolism Rare, general failure of all body systems NONE large doses may cause diarrhea. Widespread in foods, meat, poultry and fish, grain cereals and dried peas and beans
BIOTIN Coenzyme in energy metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glycogen formation Rare: anorexia, fatigue, depression dry skin heart abnormalities NONE Eggs, liver, milk dark green veggies
VITAMIN C collagen synthesis, antioxidant, promotes iron absorption, metabolizes amino acids, thyroxin synthesis, immune system functioning bleeding gums, pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin. SCURVY: hemorrhaging, muscle degeneration, skin changes, delayed wound healing, soft bones, easy fractures, soft loose teeth, anemia, Susceptible to infection, hysteria and depression Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, headache, insomnia, fatigue, hot flashes, aggravation of gout symptoms Citrus fruits and juices, red and green peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, kiwifruit, mustard greens, strawberries, tomatoes
VITAMIN A - "RETINOL" Enables eyes to function in dim light, development of bones, teeth, mucosal devlpmnt for healthy skin, membranes, hair, gums & glands, immune function night blindness, bone growth cease, bone shape change, teeth enamel crack & decay, SKIN-dry, scaly, rough & cracked. MUCOUS membranes cells flatten and harden. EYES-dry, hardening of cornea causing blindness, SALIVA-decreased-difficulty chewing, swallowin headache, vomiting, double vision, hair loss, bone abnormalities, liver damage, birth defects during pregnancy Found in Liver, milk, butter, cheese, cream, egg yolk, fortified milk & cereals / Beta-carotene:Green leafy vegs, broccoli, carrots, peaches, pumpkin, red peppers, sweet potatoes, squash, mango, watermelon, apricots, cateloupe
Created by: gillygun