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Study questions for biology HESI entrance exam

List the hierarchic system of organization kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
The hierarchic system of organization is most inclusive (broadest) as _____ and as least as _____. kingdom; species
Darwin introduced evolution in ______ 1859
Darwin proposed that current species arose from a process called "____________" decent with modification
What substance makes life possible? water
__________ of a molecule is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of that molecule by 1 degree Celsius. specific heat
Water has a ______ specific heat value high
______ is the ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance. cohesion
________ is the ability of water to bond to or attract other molecules or substances. adhesion
What are the 4 most important molecules that are significant in biology? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
______ are long chains, or polymers of sugars. These have main purposes as storage, structure and energy. carbohydrates
______ are also known as fats or fatty acids, phospholipids and steroids. lipids
________ are lipids that are categorized as saturated or unsaturated. fatty acid
_______ fats contain no double bonds in their hydrogen tail. saturated
______ fats are solid at room temperature and _____ are liquid. saturated; unsaturated
Fats that are generally considered detrimental to health saturated fats
_______ is the fatty acid associated with membranes and are precursors to hormones. Steroids
______ are the most significant contributor to cellular function. proteins
Proteins are polymers of 20 ________. amino acids
______ are the larges biological molecules. proteins
_______ are types of proteins that act to catalyze different reactions or processes. enzymes
The sum of all chemical reactions in an organism. metabolism
The fundamental unit of biology cell
The 2 types of cells prokaryotic & eukaryotic
Components of cells organelles
Cells that have no defined nucleus and a series of organelles that carry out the functions of the cell. prokaryotic
Cells that have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles that carry out the functions of the cell. More complex cell type eukaryotic
The first of the organelles which holds the DNA of the cell in masses called chromosomes nucleus
_______ contain all material for the regeneration of the cell. chromosomes
______ are organelles that read RNA produced in the nucleus ribosomes
Cells with a ______ rate of protein synthesis have a ______ number of ribosomes. high/large
Bound ribosomes are found on _______ and free ribosomes are found in ______. ER; cytoplasm
ER covered with ribosomes that is responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production Rough ER
ER that functions in detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules Smooth ER
The packaging, processing and shipping organelle that functions to transport materials from the ER throughout the cell. golgi apparatus
Where intracellular digestion takes place lysosomes
______ can hydrolyze proteins, fats, sugars and nucleic acids lysosomes
_________ are membrane-enclosed structures that have various functions depending of cell type. vacuoles
What are the 2 distinct organelles that produce cell energy? mitochondrion & choloroplast
_______ are found in most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cell respiration. mitochondria
_____ are found in plants and are the site of photosynthesis chloroplasts
______ is the most important component of a cell and it contributes protection, communication and the passage of substances into and out of the cell. cellular membrane
C6H1206 + 602 ----> 6C02 + 6H20 is the balanced equation for ________. cellular respiration
_____ is the molecule that is used as the currency of the cell. ATP
______ acts as a reducing agent and is the vehicle of stored energy. reduced NADH
The first step of cellular respiration; this step is the conversion of glucose to pyruvate. glycolysis
Glycolysis takes place in the _______ of a cell & produces 2 molecules each of: ATP, pyruvate & NADH cytosol
The reaction that takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria and for every 1 glucose molecule consumed, 2 ATP molecules, 6 CO2 molecules and 6 NADH molecules are produced. Krebs cycle
This occurs int he 3rd step of cellular respiration. it is when oxidation of NADH molecules produce oxygen and finally produce water. electron transport chain
In the election transport chain, for every _____ molecule, 28-32 _____ molecules can be produced. glucose; ATP
The chemical process that concerts CO2 into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy ----> C6H1206 + 6O2 is the equation for _________, which is the opposite of cellular respiration. photosynthesis
The 2 stages of photosynthesis light reactions & calvin cycle
The _______ stage of photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy light reactions
The 2 categories of cellular respiration sexual and asexual
What are 2 types of asexual reproduction? binary fission & mitosis
This type of asexual reproduction involves bacterial cells binary fission
What happens in binary fission? the chromosome binds to the plasma membrane where it replicates, then as the cell grows, it pinches into 2, producing 2 identical cells.
The type of asexual reproduction that occurs in 5 stages mitosis
5 stages of mitosis prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Stage of mitosis where the chromosomes are visibly separate, and each duplicated chromosome has 2 noticeable sister chromatids prophase
The phase of mitosis when the nuclear envelope begins to disappear and the chromosomes begin to attach tot he spindle that is forming along the axis of the cell prometaphase
The stage of mitosis when all of the chromosomes align along the center of the cell metaphase
the stage of mitosis when chromosomes start to separate. In this phase the chromatids are considered separate chromosomes. anaphase
The stage of mitosis when chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell. telophase
Process of asexual reproduction associated with cell division in which the cell pinches in two, forming two separate identical cells (not associated with mitosis) cytokinesis
Process of cell division in sexual reproduction of a cell meiosis
2 distinct phases of meiosis that result in 4 daughter cells meiosis one, meiosis two
Stage of meiosis when chromosomes are duplicated and the cell prepares for division interphase
The stages of meiosis one prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I
The significant differences between meiosis and mitosis occur in _______ prophase I
During this phase of meiosis one, nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes cross at numerous locations. prophase I
After the first ______, meiosis two begins cytokinesis
2 alternate genetic traits for every version of a gene alleles
2 types of simple traits dominant & recessive
An organism with alleles of the same type homozygous
An organism with alleles of opposite types heterozygous
If a dominant allele is present, the phenotype expressed will be _______ dominant
What is the only way a trait can be recessive? if both alleles are recessive
Device that predicts genotype and phenotype of the offspring of sexual reproduction punnett square
The combo of alleles genotype
What traits will be expressed phenotype
Progeny offspring
Study of heredity genetics
Family tree that traces the occurrence of a certain trait through several generation pedigree
genetic material of a cell; vehicle of inheritance DNA
Year that Watson & Crick described the structure of DNA 1953
Adenine bonds with _______ thymine
Guanine bonds with ________ cytosine
Protein synthesis of DNA begins with _______ transcription
Piece of genetic material produced by transcription mRNA
________ functions as a messenger from the original DNA helix in the nucleus to the ribosomes in cytosol or rough ER mRNA
Every group of 3 bases along the stretch of RNA codon
Where the anticodon is located tRNA
tRNA is stopped by a stop codon
What is the most important characteristic of water? polarity of the hydrogen-oxygen bonds
Which of the following biologic macromolecules are most important to the cellular membrane? a) steroids b) proteins c) carbohydrates d) phospholipids D- phospholipids
What cellular organelle is the site of catabolic pathway leading to cellular energy production? mitochondrion
What type of cellular reproduction do bacteria undergo? binary fission
What is the probability that a recessive trait would be expressed in offspring if 2 parents who are both heterozygous for the desired trait were crossed? 25%
In which organelle does transcription begin? nucleus
Created by: candismurphy