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Skeletal System A&P2


Movement of a body part away from the midline abduction
movement of a body part toward the midline adduction
a thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis artciular
moves the distal end of a bone in a circle circumduction
the outer layer of bone that is hard and dense compact bone
an oval projection that fits into an elliptical socket condyle
a sharp edge crest
shaft; a hollow tube made of hard, compact bone diaphysis
a thin membrane that lines the meduallary cavity endosteum
cartilage between the epiphyses and the diaphysis; primary location for growth epiphyseal plate
the ends of the bone epiphyses
increasing the angle of a join, as in straightening a bent elbow extension
reduces the angle of the joint, as in bending the elbow flexion
areas where ossification is incomplete or known as "soft spots" fontanel
the process of blood cell formation hematopoiesis
the hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone containing yellow bone marrow; consists primarily of fat medullary cavity
a large depression on the posterior surface of the humerus olecranon fossa
bone reabsorbing cells osteoclasts
living bone cells osteocytes
a bone-forming cell osteoblasts
a strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces periosteum
soft connective tissue inside the hard walls of some bones red bone marrow
spins one bone relative to another, as in rotatingthe head at the neck joint rotation
spaces or cavities within some of the cranial bones sinus
the porous bone in the end ofthe long bone spongy bone
an immovable joint suture
purpose of the skeletal system provide a rigid framework and support structure for the whole body
functions of the skeletal system support, protection, movement, storage, hematopoiesis
structure that connects muscle to bone tendon
structure that connects bone to bone ligament
most abundant substance in bone calcium
two types of marrow red and yellow
types of bones long, short, flat, irregular
carpals and tarsals are an example of what type of bone short bones
scapula and skull bones are an example of what type of bone flat bones
vertebrae are an example of what type of bones irregular bones
humerus and femur are examples of what type of bones long bones
bones form by the replacement of existing connective tissue, what are the two ways intramembranous and endochondral
developing from layers of connective tissue. simpler and most direct for of ossification; flat bones and clavicles are formed in this manner intramembranous bone formation
develops first as hyaline cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue, all other bones are formed in this manner endochondral bone formation
two divisions of the human skeleton axial and appendicular
suture that is midline between the two parietal bones sigittal
suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bones coronal
suture between the occipital and parietal bones lambdoidal
suture between the temporal and parietal bones squamosal
number of vertebrae in the vertebral column 26
number of cervical vertebrae 7
number of thoracic vertebrae 12
number of lumbar vertebrae 5
number of fused vertebrae in the sacrum 5
number of fused vertebrae in the coccyx 4
number of pairs of ribs in the thoracic cage 12
number of true ribs first 7 pairs; costal cartilages of ribs join directly to the sternum
number of false ribs remaining pairs, 8 through 12; connected indirectly to the sternum
floating ribs last two pairs 11, 12; no cartilaginous attachment to the sternum
structure located midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cage sternum
top portion of the sternum manubrium
bottom portion of the sternum xiphoid process
composed of two clavicles and two scapulae pectoral girdle
immovable joints synarthroses
slightly movable joints amphiarthroses
freely movable joints diarthroses
fibrous tissue binds bones together in this type of joint synarthroses
cartilaginous tissue binds bones together in this type of joint amphiarthroses
synovial tissue binds bones together in this type of joint diarthroses
types of synovial joints ball and socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, saddle
shoulder and hip (type of joint) example of ball-and socket joint
between the metacarpals and the phalanges (type of joint) example of a condyloid joint
between the wrist and ankle bones (type of joint) example of gliding joints
elbow...humerus and ulna (type of joint) example of a hinge joint
proximal ends of radius and ulna (type of joint) example of a pivot joint
joint between the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb example of a saddle joint
lowering a part (drooping the shoulders) depression
flexing the foot at the ankle (bending the foot upward) dorsiflexion
raising a part (shrugging the shoulders) elevation
turning the foot so the sole is outward eversion
straightening a joint so that the angle between its parts is increased and the parts move farther apart (straightening the leg at the knee) extension
excessive extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical position hyperextension
turning the foot so the sole is inward inversion
extending the foot at the ankle plantar flexion
turning the hand so the palm is downward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is lowered pronation
moving a part forward protraction
moving a part backward retraction
turning the hand so the palm is upward or turning the foot so that thte medial margin is raised supination
Created by: 1127174238