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Human Physiology H2

Handout 2 Review Chem and Cell Phys

Bond Atoms are held together by bonds
Covalent bond Bonds created by tow atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons
Ionic bond A bond btwn ions attracted to each other by opposite charge
Hydrogen bond weak attractive forces btwn hydrogens and other atoms, esp. O and N
Van der Waals forces Weak attractive force that occurs btwn two polar molecules or a polar molecule and an ion
Ion An atom with a net positive or negative charge due to gain or loss of one or more electrons
Cation + charged ion
Anion - charged ion
Polarity of a cell Cells restrict certain membrane proteins to particular regions, thereby creating cell with different funxs in different areas
Polar molecule Molecules that develop regions of partial positive and negative charge when one or more atoms in the molecule have a strong attraction for ELECTRONs
Nonpolar molecule A molecule whose electrons are distributed so evenly that there are no regions of partial positive or negative charge
Hydrophilic Water LOVING
Hydrophobic Water HATING
pH The concentration of H+ ions in a soln and it measures acidity in that soln; measures influence of the forces and shape
Changes in acidity Can alter Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces altering shape causing lessened efficiency of the cell; maintaining shape in important for normal funx and activity levels8888888888
Buffer resists change in pH
Optimal pH 7-7.6; anything out of this range leads towards death 0 = Acid (Strong Acid) 14 = Base (Weak Acid)
Biomolecules (4) Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleotides -All used as E and used structurally -Most exist as polymers; long units built from a basic building block
Carbohydrates building blocks = monosaccharides (glucose) disaccharides (glucose + fructose = sucrose)
How do plants store glucose? As starch & Cellulose (long polymer)
How do animals store glucose? As glycogen (long polymer)
Lipids Made from fatty acids + glycerol; tri, di, & monoglycerides
What is the storage form of lipids in animals? Triglyceride
Proteins Do the most work in a cell; BB's are Amino Acids; 20+ Amino Acids are a protein; peptide or polypeptide 2-20 amino acids.
Nucleotides signaling molecules assembled from RNA & DNA; compd's-polymers of nucleotide
Actions of soluble proteins ENZYMES; MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS activley pushing things in and out of cell; SIGNAL MOLECULES; RECEPTORS; BINDING PROTEINS binding selves to environment; REGULATORY PROTEINS regulating internal processes; Immune activities as IMMUNOGLOBULINS
Protein binding Exhibits specificity, affinity, competition and saturation
Ligund any molecule tht binds to another molecule
Substrate A ligund that binds to an enzyme or membranne transporter
Specificity Some mols bind to it but others do not
Affinity Tightens/strengthens binding; diff affinities of binding; Hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO2 that O2
Competition Two substrated that compete for a binding site, reducung the effectiveness of both
Saturation Limited number of transporters, receptors and when all are used it creates limited connectivity
Agonists Diff ligunds that bind to the same protein and ACTIVATE it
Antagonists Ligunds that bind to a protein and BLOCK its function
Factors that affect protein function Isoforms, modulators
Isoforms Variations made by changing an amino acid in a protein, changing its function with a MEASURABLE EFFECT Ex. Embryonic and Adult Hemoglobin-both funx by binding to O but diff affinityf; Embryonic is higher to get O2 from Mom
Modulators Change activity, shape, adn behavior of a protein when temp or pH changes too much
Competitive inhibitor Blocks activity; like an irreversible inhibitor
Irreversible inhibitor toxins, botox that irreversibly binds to block activity
Allosteric modulator A molecule that binds to a receptor NOT at an active site has modualted activity Ex. GABA may inhibit response at target neuron so increase in activity. (?)
Covalent modulator Can target specific proteins quickly by attaching a protein to a phosphate (PHOSPHORALATION) and detatch a phospate (DEPHOSPHORALATION)
Phosphoralation ADD a phosphate; turn ON; ACTIVATES a protein
Dephosphoralation DETATCH a phosphate; Turn OFF; Deactivate a protein
E in biological systems -E is used to peroform work; can be either kinetic or potential; can be converted from one form to another; thermodynamics
Potential Energy Greatest potential E is at top of a roller coaster
Kinetic Energy Released on the way down a roller coaster
Exergonic reactions Energy RELEASED during CHEMICAL reactions; Products at LOWER E than the substrates
Endergonic reactions Energy is UTILIZED during CHEMICAL reactions; Product has HIGHER E level than the subtrates
Exergonic and Endergonic reactions can be coupled Combining two amino acids to make a peptide; Products have higher E by coupling w/an exergonic rxn (ATP)
Most reactions need an Activation Energy Ex. Paper is held together by covalent bonds, if burned the ashes hold lower E. Released E as heat doesn't happen onits own b/c its stable and needs Activation E (reaching 450 degrees w/the help of a match) otherwise it will stay in its potential state.
Enzymes A+B+enzyme = C+D+enzyme; enzymes lower the Activation E of reactions to allow a rxn to happen that is aventatious for us; Reaction rates are variable
Metabolism catabolism, anabolism
Catabolism rxns PRODUCE E via breakdown of large biomolecules into their own building blocks
Anabolism rxns USE E to produce large biomolecules; combining large molecules to build larger ones
How is metabolism measured? Can measure heat released or produced and indirectly the amt of O2 being consumed in kCAls= E content in food= heat released by burning
Control of Metabolism Controlling enzyme concentrations, ,modulation of enzymatic activity, reversible rxns, isolation of enzymes, changing ratio of ATP:ADP
Controlling enzyme concentrations turning on/off w/ gene activity; most enzymatic rxns have one irriversible direction; some are reversible
Reversible rxns using ONE enzyme for both directions RARE
Reversible rxn requiring TWO enzymes ONLY LIVER can reverse a rxn
Irreversible rxn lacks the enzyme for the reverse rxn ALL CELLS i body can do this;
Isolation of enzyme seperate and control rxns Ex. lysosome breaks down stuff
Shift ratio of ATP:ADP Less E to slow down metabolism or increase E to increase metabolism
ATP production from glucose glycolosis, citric acid cycle, electron transpot chain
Glycolosis Breaking down glucose from ATP; IN CYTOPLASM Breaks down glucose to 2-3 Carbon pyruvate to produce 2 ATP; glycolosis is anerobic (doesn't require O2)
Nervous sytem and Brain ONLY USE GLUCOSE for ATP
ALL other systems Can breakdown biomolecules for ATP
Citriic acid cycle in MITOCHONDRIA so requires O2 resulting in breaking down in the mitochondria to 6 carbons + O2 + water to produce CO2 resulting in 34-36 ATP gained
Electron transport chain in MITOCHONDRIA so requires O2 (same result in ATP as citric acid cycle -only when O2 is present)
If no glucose... take form storage; breakdown glycogen to glucose 6 phosphate then glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain.
Still no glucose?...make new glucose in The LIVER after the glucose supply is all used up; generally, free amino acids are catalyzed to produce ATP; deamination then glycolosis or citric acid cycle
deamination ?
Lipids and ATP triglycerides catalyzed (breakdown)via process called lipolysis
lypolysis glycerol enters glycolysis then fatty acids shipped to mitochondria to citric acid cycle and elctron transport chain so need ATP; so need O2
How do we get fat from fat free food? Glycerol can be made from glucose through glycolysis then converted to fatty acids then into triglycerides (fat) and then stored as fat
Cell physiology Cytoplasm and Nucleus
Cytoplasm Cytosol inclusions and organelles
Cytosol fluid, gel-like substance
Inclusions (non-membraneous organelles) cytoskeleton and ribosomes
Cytoskeleton microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments and motor proteins; in cytoskeleton are proteins that support framework of cell, organizing within the cell and maintaing shape and mvmnt
Ribosomes make proteins by reading RNA from DNA
Organelles (membrane bound) mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes
Mitochondria ATP production
Endoplasmic Reticulum Modify proteins and make specific membranes and lipis, produce hormones
Golgi Complex Pkging and sorting proteins to specific locations
Lysosomes Recycling Center;Breaking down old materials
Peroxisomes Free radicals minimizing damage to nucleus
Nuclear envelope hold nucleolus
Nucleolus building blocks of ribosomes; are produced here
Making of a protein DNA, Transcription, Translation, Sorting, folding modification
DNA (in making a protein) parts being controlled by transcription factors
Transcription unprocessed mRNA, processed mRNA; copy of DNA (dbl strand) to RNA (single strand)so can get out of nucleus
Translation in cytoplasm by ribosome
Sorting, folding, modification in cytoplasm if staying in cytoplasm; in endoplasmic reticulum or goli apparatus if beign secreted
Cell binding Cell-cell junctions, cell matrix junctions; to neighbors &/or the environment to form tissues
Cell-cell junctions Gap junctions, tight junctions, anchoring junctions
gap junctions form a pore to allow communication btwn neighboring cells (ATP, Ca, Electrical signals in CM cells)
tight junctions form a waterproof barrier preventing material from sliding btwn cells Ex. in STOMACH
anchoring junctions strongly attaching cells to neighbors; if not attached to the environment they begin to divide; anchoring inhibits cell division which causes cancer
Cell-Matrix junctions focal adhesions, hemidesmosomes
Tissues Embryonically/functionally related cells + extracellualr matrix and 4 tissue types
4 Tissue types Epithelial tissue, CT, Muscle tissue and Nervous tissue (be able to give an example and what its used for)
Epithelial Tissue Lines organs; stomach lining and skin
Connective tissue Connects, supports, protects; cartilage, blood, tendons
Nervous tissue informs us of environmental change in CNS; signals muscles
Muscular tissue Movement and support; skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Created by: Lkellyfly