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68WM6 Pharmacology

Intro to Pharm Exam Phase 1

most common unit of measurement in the medical environment Metric System
3 basic units of measurement in the metric system Gram, Liter, Meter
First system of measurement used by pharmacists and physicians Apothecary System
1 grain is equal to how many mg 60 mg
1 kg is equal to how many pounds 2.2
1 oz is equal to how many mL 30
1 tbsp is equal to how many mL 15
1 tsp is equal to how many mL 5
Movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood stream for distribution to the tissues Absorption
Drug interaction in which two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drug given alone. 1+1=2 Additive Effect
Any unexpected, unintended, or undesired responses to meds Adverse Reactions
what the drug does to the body Pharmacodynamics
The 6 rights of medication administration Right Medication, Right Dose, Right Time, Right Route, Right Patient, Right Documentation
When giving an Intradermal injection, what should the size and length of the needle be? 26-25 gauge 3/8-5/8 inch needle
When drawing up 2 different types of insulin, to avoid contamination, which bottle should be drawn up first? Always draw up the clear insulin first
When giving an injection in the gluteal muscles, you should avoid giving the injection where? The dorsal gluteal area, you may injure the sciatic nerve. Give the injection in the ventrogluteal area.
When giving an intramuscular injection, the most commonly used needle is? 20 to 22 gauge, 1.25 inches long
Routes of parenteral administration Subcutaneously Intramuscular Intravenous Intradermal
Administered by methods other than digestive route; usually thought of as the needle route Parenteral administration
Methods of Percutaneous administration Topical Instillation Inhalation Transdermal
Forms of Percutaneous Administration medications Lotions Ointments Creams Powders
When verifying the amount of a liquid medication, hold eye level and see that the base of the _________ is even with the appropriate line measure on the cup. Meniscus
Oral Liquid forms Elixir Syrup Suspension
One or more drugs finely divided into a liquid such as water Suspension
Medication dissolved in a concentrated solution of sugar and water Syrup
Alcohol solution that is sweet and aromatic Elixir
A tablet that can be cut in half to administer a half of a dose Scored Tablet
A patient needs to take a sublingual form of nitroglycerin. Where would you instruct the patient to place the tablet? Under the tongue
A form of medication that contains a powder, liquid, or oil enclosed in a hard or soft gelatin Capsule
A tablet with a special coating that protects from the effects of gastric secretions and prevents them from dissolving in the stomach Enteric Coated Tablets
Enteral Routes PO Tubal Suppository Enema
3 Routes of administration Percutaneous Enteral Parenteral
Factors contributing to variable responses to drugs Age, Weight, Physical health, Psychological status, Amount of food in stomach, Dosage form, Gender, Environmental temps
Absorption of drugs in order from most rapid to slowest IV-->IM-->SubQ-->Oral
When should controlled substances be counted? At the beginning and end of a work shift WITH another nurse
The drug name most commonly seen in the healthcare environment is? Generic Name
A client is d/c home with a prescription for tetracycline 250 mg PO 3 times daily. Which type of name does "tetracycline" represent? Generic name
Factors influencing medication absorption Route of administration Ability of med to dissolve Blood flow to site of administration Body surface area lipid solubility of medication
Who must witness the disposal (wasting) of the unused portion of a controlled substance? Another nurse. one must be an RN
These need to be double-locked with separate "narcotic keys" that require accountability Controlled substances
These drugs have a potential for high abuse with severe dependance. i.e. Vicodin, Lorcet Schedule II drugs
Potential for moderate dependence i.e. Anabolic steroids Schedule III
Limited dependency potential i.e. Xanax Schedule IV
Limited abuse potential i.e. codeine Schedule V
High abuse potential No accepted medical use i.e. heroine, marijuana, LSD Schedule I
This regulated the manufaction, distribution and dispensation of drugs that have the potential for abuse Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
The FDA assigns drugs to one of these three categories Prescription drugs Non-prescription drugs Controlled Substances
3 Drug Classifications Clinical Indication Mechanism of Action Body System
This Drug classification is classified upon the disease state they are used to treat. i.e. antacids, antibiotics, antihypertensives Clinical Indication (Therapeutic)
This drug classification is classified based on the drug's physiological action with in the body. i.e. Anti-cholinergics, proton-pump inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers Mechanism of Action (Pharmacologic)
This drug classification is classified based on the body system it affects. i.e. CNS, Cardiovascular system, GI system Body System
Drugs may be known by three different names Chemical name Generic name Trade name
Brand name is the drug's registered trademark, given by the manufacturer Trade name
You are checking the IVPB for your patient and you notice haziness and precipitate. Which drug interaction would you suspect? Incompatibility
The nurse is administering meds to a patient who is in liver failure. THe nurse is aware that patients with liver failure would most likely have problems with which pharmacokinetic phase? Metabolism (Biotransformation)
Your patient took a prescription med to help her sleep; however, she felt restless all night and did not sleep at all. The nurse recognizes that this patient has experienced a(an)... Adverse effect
This is usually measured in a blood sample just before next scheduled dose for therapeutic drug monitoring. Trough level
Movement of drug molecules from sit of entry into the body is called: Absorption
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. Additive effect
Expected or predictable physiological response that a medication causes Therapeutic effects
amount of a drug that produces signs and symptoms of poisoning Toxic dose
May develop after prolonged intake of a med or when a med accumulates in the blood because of imparied metabolism or excretion toxic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a comination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. 1+1 is greater than 2. Synergistic effect
the time required for the drug to elicit a therapeutic response onset of action
4 parts of the pharmicokinetic phase absorption distribution metabolism excretion
from administration of the drug, disintegration of dosage form, and dissolution of the drug in the body pharmaceutical phase
When drawing a medication from an ampule, you must be sure you use what? a filter needle
the time required for the body to eliminate 50% of a given drug half-life
rare and unpredictable effects in which a particular client overreacts or under reacts to a medication or had a reaction different from normal idiosyncratic reactions
What are the two types of adverse reactions? Allergic reactions Idiosyncratic reactions
Created by: 1127174238