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MBIO 3113 VOCAB II

QuestionAnswer
Germ cells Transmit genetic information from parent to offspring.
Somatic cells Form the body of the organism, any cells that aren’t the germ cell.
DNA polymerase Enzymes that synthesizes DNA by joining nucleotides together using a DNA template as a guide.
Replication fork Y shaped region of DNA molecule which 2 strands of DNA being separated & daughter strands being formed.
Leading strand 1 of 2 newly synthesized strands of DNA at rep fork. Made by continuous synthesis 5’-3’ direction.
Lagging strand 1 of 2 newly synthesized strands of DNA at rep fork. Made in discontinuous lengths an later joined covalently.
DNA primase Enzyme that synthesizes short strand of RNA on DNA template, producing a primer for DNA synthesis.
RNA primers Short stretch of RNA synthesized on DNA template. It is req’d by DNA polymerase to start synthesis.
DNA helicases Enzyme that is involved in opening DNA helix into single strands for DNA replication.
SSBP Protein that binds to single strand of opened up DNA double helix, prevent helical structure from reforming.
Sliding clamp Protein complex that holds DNA polymerase on DNA during replication.
Clamp loader Hydrolyzes ATP as it loads clamp on primer template junction
Strand directed mismatch pair System detects potential for distortion in DNA helix from misfit between noncompementary pairs.
DNA topoisomerases Reversible nuclease that adds itself covalently to DNA backbone to break phosphodiester bond to move rep fork.
Replication origins Location on DNA molecule at which duplication of DNA begins.
S phase Period of eukaryotic cell cycle in which DNA is synthesized.
ORC Large protein complex that bound DNA origins of replication in eukaryotic chromosomes in cell cycle.
Histone chaperones Protein that binds free histones, releasing them once incorporated newly replicated chromatin.
Telomerase Enzyme elongates telomere sequences in DNA, which occur at end of eukaryotic chromosomes.
DNA repair Erroneous changes in DNA due to metabolic accidents etc. that are corrected by set of processes.
Base excision repair DNA repair pathway in which single faulty bases removed from helix & replaced.
Nucleotide excision repair DNA repair corrects damage of helix, i.e. chemical or uv damage, by cutting damaged region out & using other strand as template.
Nonhomologous end joining Broken ends of DNA are joined by DNA ligation by deleting a DNA sequence.
Hybridization - Process which 2 complementary nucleic acid form base pair duplex.
RecA protein Prototype for DNA binding protein catalyze synapsis of DNA strand during genetic recombination.
Rad51 Human homolog of bacterial RecA protein
Heteroduplex Region of DNA helix formed by pairing of 2 DNA strands from 2 different DNA molecules.
Holliday junction X shaped structure observed in DNA undergoing recombination, 2 DNA are held together at site of crossing over.
Alleles One of several forms of genes. Each gene has 2 alleles, respect to locus on homologous chromosomes.
Gene conversion Process by which DNA sequence information transferred from one helix (unchanged) to another whose sequence is altered.
Transposition Segment of DNA move from one genome to another by transposition.
Conservative site specific recombination Genetic recombination which DNA strand exchange between segments possessing limited degree of sequence homology.
Created by: genechem