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Test 3

Mercury .387 AU
Orbit of Mercury Highly eccentric, T=88 earth days
Rotation of Mercury Mercurian day: 176 Earth days, 1.5 rotations per orbit/Mercurian year
Composition of Mercury same as Earth, large metallic core, possible it was a larger planet in the past, less liquid metal means slower rotation
Geology of Mercury High Winds, had volcanoes in past
Venus .723 AU
Rotation of Venus retrograde rotation, rotation 243 days, orbit 225 days
Composition of Venus Earth like, Thicker crust than Earth, 100x Earth's atmoshphere by mass
Surface of Venus Many more volcanoes than Earth, domed shaped lava flows, two raised continents but no oceans, mountains similar to Earth, no plate tectonics
Atmosphere of Venus Loss of atmospheric hydrogen due to Solar UV, clouds of sulfuric acid but no rain, too hot near surface for liquid
Mars 1.524 AU
Orbit of Mars more eccentric than Earth, year length 690 daysm distance from Sun varies 255 in Martian year
Rotation of Mars Day length 24.7 hours, axis at 25 degress, has seasons like Earth
Seasons of Mars Polar caps grow during winter, South pole has winter at aphelion, summer at perihelion, seasons more pronounced in south hemisphere
Composition of Mars Similar to Earth, silicate crust and mantle, Iron nickle core less dense due to sulfar, crust 2x as thick as Earth, no plate tectonic, weak magnetic field
Surface of Mars Less volcanoes than Earth but larger, evidence of liquid water, dune seas and massive sand storms
Atmosphere of Mars Thin atmosphere, 95% CO2 3%N2, may have lost atmosphere over long time, more atmospheric pressure would have preserved liquid water
Earth 1 AU
Composition of Earth Large liquid metal layer=strong magnetic field, earthquakes create pressure waves
Plate Tectonics New material, pushes through crust at midocean ridges, pushes crustal plates apart, subduction is when one plate slides beneath another, volcanoes result
Tidal Forces Tides are due to bulging of oceans under different gravitational forces from the moon
Jupiter 5.2 AU
Interior of Jupiter Mantle convection causes 120 m/s winds, possible water layer just above core, fluid metallic hydrogen provides magnetic field
Magnetic Field of Jupiter Stonger than Earth's , deflects solar wind, traps charged particles in an envelope around planet
Io Jupiters nearest large satellite, most volcanically active body in solar systemm habitable surface temperature, no atmosphere, injects gasses into jupiters magnetic field
Aurora Solar wind and charged particles from Io are trapped in Jupiters magnetic fields, field lines lead to poles
Gaynemede Largest moon in solar system, water is a large component, likley soft ice or hydrate crystals in mantle, possible liquid water
Callisto Composition like Gaynemede but odd structure, ice and rock crust no defined core, possible liquid water layer
Surface of Europa no atmosphere, cracks filled with water emerging from below, cryovolcanism, domes due to upwelling, vast ice flows
Composition of Europa Icy crust up to 200 km thick, silicate mantle, rocky/metalic core, volcanic vents at ocean floor, possible life?
Saturn 9.6 AU
Interior of Saturn Rocky core, liquid metallic hydrogen mantle, molecular hydrogen crust
Titan atmosphere similar to Earth (rich in carbon compounds), shed light on early organic chemistry of Earth, habitable when Sun becomes red giant
Uranus 19.2 AU
Rotation of Uranus Extreme tilt, moons and rings orbit same direction as roatation
Seasons of Uranus Day night cycle similar to Earth in fall/spring, summer is all light, winter is all dark
Neptune 30 AU
Weather of Neptune Strongest winds in solar system, vortices like Jupiters Red spot but less long lived, greater temperature differences inside cause more convection
Interior of Neptune Rocky core, highly compressed water mantle, liquid hydrogen and helium crust
Triton Highly tilted retrograde orbit, thin atmosphere freezes solid over night, captured after Neptune formed, volcanoes of liquid nitrogen and methane
Nebular Theory Disc forms bringing particles close, collisions form planetesmals while a protostar forms at center, fusion ignites in star causing T tauri wind dissipating gasses, gas giants scatter material inward aiding rocky planets formation
Nebular Theory Rocky Planets got material via gravity and collisions, collapse would give planets rotational directions
Frost Line Water is vaporous nearer the protostar and does not form planetesmals there, water is solid beyone frost line
Direct Detection Image with telescope, image star and look at nearby objects, diffraction spreads out light of star blotting out planet, biased toward large planets
Interferometry use wave nature of light to distinguish two sources from single source, pattern depends on size and separation of telescopes, studies plantet doesn't discover them, biased toward large planets
Astrometry Directly observe stars motion due to planets gravity, range to hundreds of LY, information on mass of planet and details of orbit, biased toward large M planets
Doppler Effect Charges wavelength of light when source moves toward or away, indicates velocity of star as it varies with time, works out to thousands of LY, most sucessful method to find planets to date, biased toward large M planets in close orbits
Biases of Transits Large R planets in close by orbits
Created by: crescenti