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Bio and Cog Psych

3rd yr psych

aphasia prob. with production and comprehension of spoken word
agraphia prob. with writing words
dyslexia prob with reading written words
acalculia problem with numeric processing
auditory agnoisia problem with recognition of auditory info (behave like deaf people)
word sound deafness problem with comprehension of auditory info
word form deafness problem with speech formation
word meaning deafness prob with assessing semantics
central semantic deficit impaired written and spoken word comprehension
peripheral dyslexia early stages of word recognition affected
neglect don't attend to to left or right side of space (RH, parietal lobe damage)
pure alexia/dyslexia letter by letter reading; lesion in inferior occipital lobe in LH
attentional dyslexia can't recognise same word or letter if its shown with items of the same type
visual dyslexia misidentify a word for one that is visually similar
surface dyslexia regular words read better than irregular words (impairment of lexical route)
phonological dyslexia poor/flawed nonword/new word reading (impaired sub-lexical route
deep dyslexia semantic error in reading aloud
capgras delusion significant others replaced by imposters
cotard delusion believe you are dead
fregoli delusion someone close is following but I don't know it's them as they're wearing a disguise
place reduplication there are 2 or more places with the same name
reduplicative paramnesia duplicated places or significant others
reverse intermetamorphosis believe you are someone else
mirrored self misidentification can't recognise reflection, think it's someone else
synaesthesia sensory activation in one modality causes sensory activation in another
apraxia loss of ability to execute learned purposeful movements despite being physically able
ideomotor apraxia inability to carry out motor command (mime action)
ideational apraxia inability to create plan/idea for specific movement (pick up pen and write name)
buccofacial apraxia inability to carry out facial movements on command
limb apraxia problem w/ fine precise movements
limb-kinetic apraxia inability to make fine, precise movements with a limb
verbal apraxia difficulty planning movements necessary for speech
contructional apraxia inability to draw or construct simple configurations
oculomotor apraxia difficulty moving eyes
action disorganisation syndrome difficulty performing everyday multi-stop task
anxiety disorder dysfunction in brain circuitry that underlies negative emotions; abnormal processing of threat related stimuli
second order conditioning CS paired w/ US may act as US
preparedness theory more biologically prepared to associate fear-relevant stimuli with aversive consequences
exposure therapy repeatedly expose feared object -> gradual reduction of fear
exteroceptive context sights, sounds, smells etc in physical environment
interoceptive context drug state, hormonal state, mood
latent inhibition repeated pre-exposure to CS on its own prior to CS-US
renewal extinction conducted in different context (A) -> CR will reappear in context B
occasion setting context modulates/sets occasion for CS
contingency predictive power of CS in predicting US presence or absence
one-trial learning CS acquired after only one trial
overshadowing 2 CSs presented in compound and paired with US, more salient CS will elicit CR
observation witness pairing of CS and US -> CS-CR in observer
instruction mere instruction of US and CS will produce CRs
mental representation mental imagery of CS or actual CS may elicit CR
salient CSs more potent at developing CRs, more intense -> faster learning
reinstatement presentation of US on its own after extinction
spontaneous recovery extended passage of time after extinction
reacquistion pairings of CS-US after extinction
context conditioning context-CS; more likely for US to occur in context
frontal lobes anterior to BA4
primary motor cortex BA4, anterior to central sulcus
secondary motor cortex lateral premotor cortex, frontal eyefield, Broca's area(BA44), posterior part of cingulate cortex
episodic memory info stored with tags about context it was acquired
Penfield's patient breakdown in temporal structure of memory; no memory for steps needs to complete tasks
source memory knowledge concerning source/context acquired (frontal damage impairs functioning)
working memory and PFc active maintenance and manipulation of info over brief interval in service to a task; might be a temporary repository; oxygen flow increased here during spatial memory task
PFC LH specialisation non spatial tasks
PFC RH specialisation spatial tasks
VLPFC specialisation maintenance only tasks
DLPFC specialisation maintenance and manipulation tasks
A not B task and PFC function long delay group had more mature pattern of frontal EEG activity
Wisconsin card sorting task and PFC Ps with frontal lobe lesions perseverate (have trouble abadoning one rule and moving to another)
deductive reasoning a form of thinking that draws one conclusion that follows logically from 2 or more premises
2 processes of dual-process model 1. relies on knowledge and heuristics 2. formal, abstract methods (logical rules)
transitive inference finding a 'aRc' inference from 'aRb' and 'bRc'; increased activation in middle frontal and cingulate
Broca's area BA44, BA45 - LH just anterior to primary motor cortex; devoted to face (tongue and lip movement) - speech production
verb deficits damage to left interior PFC
noun deficits damage to left posterior regions
objects vs action lesions associated with verb deficits -> motor planning noun deficits -> sensory and semantic features of objects
concrete vs abstractness verbs are more abstract and less imaginable nouns have more observable mapping. physically concrete
thematic argument structure verbs need and agent and can also have a theme and recipient -> more complex than nouns
selection demand verb generation has many options, so classification is easier for low selection nouns (Thompson-Schill) - Broca's area accounted for 98% of variance in retrieval errors
sentence comprehension use of semantic and syntactic processing; difficult for those w/ damage to Broca's area
sport psychology study of psychological and mental factors that influence/by sport
psychophysiology of sport performance scientific study of cognitive, emotional and bhral components of sport performance as revealed through the measurement of physiological components
ECG heart rate
EEG activity in frequency regions
EDA Skin conductance
EMG muscle activity
perceptual cognition skills cog methods that enable optimal and strategic processing of task relevnt info
Yerkes-Dodson effect optimal level of performance - increases above will produce performace decreases
Catastrophe model 3-d relationship between performance, arousal and anxiety
Obrist's cardiac coupling hypothesis deceleration in HR -> external focusing (due to metabolic and motor demands)
associative focus on aspects of performance
dissociative focus distraction from performance
competition goal associative; external focus better to be more efficient
training goal dissociative; internal focus better to build strength
Created by: 674695830
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