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68WM6 Ph 2 Test 2

intense pain over a short duration acute pain
pain lasting longer than 6 months chronic pain
potent polypeptides composed of many amino acids found in the pituitary gland and other areas of the CNS that are activated by stress and pain endorphins
suggests that pain impulses are regulated and sometimes blocked by gating mechanisms located along the central nervous system gate control theory
this type of sleep is necessary for body tissue restoration and healthy cardiac function non-rapid eye movement
injurious to physical health noxious
allows patient to admister analgesia to self as needed patient-controlled analgesia
this type of sleep is necessary for brain and cognitive restoration rapid eye movement
pain felt at a site other than the injured or diseased organ or part of the body referred pain
the action of two or more substances or organs to achieve an greater effect than either could individually synergistic
orivudes a continuous mild electric current to the skin via electrodes that are attached to a stimulator by flexible wires transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation
pain scale where patient mars a spot on a horizontal line to indicate pain intensity visual analog scale
common causes of discomfort anxiety, depression, distension, fatigue, fear, flatus, headach, incontinence, nausea, etc.
McCaffery and Pasero's theory of pain "Pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he says it does"
is pain subjective or objective in nature? subjective
according to the gate control theory, these factors can alter the passage of pain impulses into concious awareness thoughts, feelings, memories
the "fifth vital sign" pain
subjective data in pain assessment site, severity, duration, and location
objective data in pain assessment tachycardia, increased respirationi rate, increased blood presssure, pallor, dilated pupils, increased muscle tension
factors that can synergistically increase a patients perception of pain fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression
this type of analgesia inhibits prostaglandins and may block pain impulses in the CNS and perhipherally nonopioids
this form of analgesia probably relieves pain by action mainly in the CNS by binding to opioid receptor sites in the brain and the spinal cord opioids
a group of analgesics that relieves pain by a variety of mechanisms, many of which are not understood adjuvant analgesics
noninvasive approaches to pain control using cutaneous stimulation heat, cold, massage, TENS
noninvasive approaches to pain control by use of methods other than cutaneous stimulation distraction, relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, hypnonsis, biofeedback
invasive methods of pain control nerve blocks, epidural analgesics, neurosurgical procedures, acupuncture
three classes of medications used for analgesia nonopioids, opioids, adjuvant analgesics
similar to acupuncture, but uses pressure at specific points rather than needle stimulation accupressure
method of stimulating certain points on the body by the insertion of special needles to modify the preception of pain, normalize physiologic functions, or treat or prevent disease accupuncture
traditional or conventional western medicine allopathic medicine
include the same interventions as complementary therapies, but used as the primary treatment method rather than allopathis medicine alternative therapies
uses pure essential oils, produced from plants, to provide health benefits aromatherapy
noninvasive method of determining a patient's eruromuscular and autonomic nervous system response by measureing body functions (vitals) biofeedback
doctors of this undergo extensive training in manipulation of the musculoskeletal system chiropractic therapy
therapies used in addition to convetional treatment recommended by a person's health care provider complementary therapies
usually uses the whole plant and does not have any standardized doses herbal therapy
an approach to nursing that addresses and treats the mind, body, and spirit of the patient holistic nursing
use the concious mind to create mental images to evoke physical chahnges in the body, create a sense of improved wellbeing, and enhance selfawareness imagery
channels of energy meridians
sometimes derived from herbs but separate the active from inactive ingredients and have standardized dosagages; regulated by FDA pharmaceuticals
life force qi
this form of complementary/alternative medicine is based on the idea that it is possible to exert an effect on the entire body by applying pressure to specific areas on the feet reflexology
the state of a generalized decrease in cognitive, physiologic, or behavioral arousal relaxation
chinese martial arty using theory of opposites; improves strength, flexibility, coordination, agility, reaction time, sensitivity, and confidence tai chi, or taiji
massage performed by trained professionals to manipulate the soft tissues of the body and assist with healing thereapeutic massage
"yoke"; a combination of breathing exercises, physical postures, and meditation yoga
in this type of alternative/complementary therapy the manufacturere is not required by law to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, or quality of their product herbal therapy
these practitioners adjust the joints of the body by gentle manipulation to put the area back in proper alignment chiropractors
does a chiropractor prescribe medicine no
contraindications to aromatherapy eczema, allergies, pregnancy
contraindications to therapeutic massage phlebitis, thrombosis, infectiouis disease
in this complementary/alternative treatment, specific scents are used to relax, stimulate, improve digestion, increase hormone production, improve circulation, or improve memory aromatherapy
possible physiologic responses to magnet therapy vasodilation, analgesic action, anti-inflammatory, relief of spasm, healing acceleration, reduce swelling
contraindications to magnet therapy pregnancy, pacemakers, insulin pumps, cochlear implants, electric blanket or heating pad, myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism
harmful, unintended reaction to a drug administered at a normal dosage adverse drug reaction
a drug that produces a predictable response at the intended site of action agonist
severe, life threatening hypersensitivity reaction anaphylactic shock
a drug that will block the action of another drug antagonist
total area of the body exposed to the outside environment body surface area
medication achieved by placing a tablet between the cheek and the teeth or gum buccal
the ability of two drugs to coexist without any negative or positive drug interaction compatibility
the eventual total of incremental steps cumulative
bottom of the fraction denominator
a way of calculating drug dosage based on the dosage desired, conversion factor, dosage on hand dimensional analysis
the number of drops of solution required to produce 1 ml of fluid drip factor
modification of the effect of a drug when administered with another drug drug interaction
a drug given at any portion of the GI tract enteral
medication that is specially coated to keep it from being absorbed in the stomach enteric coated
outer terms of a proportion extremes
standard scale of measurement for needle diameter gauge
markings on a medicine cup or syringe indicating a specific amount graduated
an individual's unique hypersensitivity to a particular drug idiosyncratic
heparin or saline lock intermittent venous access device
the inside of the hollow shaft of a a hypodermic needle lumen
inner terms of a proportion means
curve formed by liquid's upper surface meniscus
a substance produced by metabolic action that results in the breakdown of a drug metabolite
unit for measuring the concentration of electrolytes in a certain volume of solution milliequivalent
top of a fraction numerator
any route of medication administration other than by digestive or percutaneous parenteral
the portion of a whole as an expression of how many hundredths (%) percent
medication administered through the skin or mucous membranes percutaneous
study of drugs and their action on the human body pharmacology
a drug increases the action or effect of another drug, also called synergism potentiation
the concept that the relationship between two ratios has equal value proportion
to crush into powder pulverize
the relationship of one number or quantity to another ratio
ungraduated disposable paper cup souffle cup
medication placed under the tongue sublingual
the dosage of a medication that is effective and beneficial therapeutic
reduced response to a drug over time tolerance
medication applied to the skin topical applications
the amount of a drug prescribed for the patient by the physician in a given amount of time or at a given frequency drug dosage
the smallest amount of a drug that produces a therapeutic effect minimal dosage
the amount of a drug that produces signs and symptoms of poisoning toxic dosage
the amount of a drug that will cause death lethal dosage
six rights of medication administration medication, dose, time, route, patient, documentation
factors that affect drug action in patients age, weight, physical health, psychological status, temperature of environment, sex, amount of food in stomach, dosage form
immediately; number one priority stat
as soon as possible, number three priority asap
give now; number two priority now
as necessary; can be requested by patient or given at the discretion of the nurse within specific parameters set by the physician prn
drugs that have a high possibility for abuse or addiction controlled substance
an order stated by the physician; must be signed withing 24 hours verbal order
verbal order given over the telephone telephone order
orders that arre already written by a physician for any patient on a particular unit or area; no need to confirm them with physician before taking action standing order
the largest amount of a drug that it is possible to give safely maximal dosage
how many times should medications be checked before administration? three
what is the correct method for identifying a patient before administering medication? full name, date of birth
when should medications be charted? after administration
what is the correct method for selecting an injection site? anatomical landmarks
whose responsiblility is it to ensure that a patient receives the correct medication ordered by the physician? the nurse
how many people are required to waste a controlled substance? two
what is the fastest method of medication administration? parenteral
what is the purpose of the z-track methos of injection? to minimise irritation and tissue discoloration
that are intradermal injections commonly used for? skin testing
viscous fluid that consists of plasma and formed elements blood
pH range of blood 7.35-7.45
normal NaCl concentration in blood 0.9%
plasma proteins that help thicken and maintain blood volume albumins
plasma proteins that help protect the body from infection globulins
plasma proteins necessary for blood clotting fibrinogen
average adult blood volume 4-6 L
three granular leukocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
two nongranular leukocytes lymphocytes, monocytes
the three major formed elements of blood RBC's, WBC's, and platelets
substances transported in the blood oxygen and CO2, nutrients, waste products, hormones
elements of homeostasis regulated by blood pH, water content, prevents blood loss, body temperature
the part of the blood that is mostly responsible for transporting O2 hemoglobin
three elements of hemostasis (stopping hemorrhage) vessel spasm, platelet plug formation, clot formation
clear, straw colored portion of blood that is a mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes plasma
smallest but most abundant plasma protein, important in maintaining the colloid osmotic pressure of blood albumin
indications for administration of whole blood hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock
indications for administration of fresh whole blood multiple trasfusion, exchange transfusions, priming agent for hemodialysis
indications for the administration of packed RBC's danger of circulatory overload, anemia, low hemoglobin
indications for the administration of washed RBC's (deglycerolized) hypersensitivity reactions likely, immunosuppressed patient, history of reactions, bone marrow transplant patients
indications for the administratioin of fresh frozen plasma clottind deficiencies, for blood volume expansion (burns, shock, protein deficiency), warfarin overdose
procedure in which blood is drawn off, cleansed, and returned to circulation plasmapheresis (plasma exchange)
indications for plasmapheresis immune disorders, multiple myeloma, glomerulonephritis, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis
indications for the administration of granulocytes low granulocytes
indications for the administration of pooled platelets thrompocytopenia, low platelet count, active bleeding
indications for the administration of single donor platelets thrombocytopenia, active bleeding, low platelets with history of febrile or allergic reactions
indications for the administration of cryoprecipitate hemophilia, fibrinogen deficiency, von Willebrand's diseaase
indications for the administration of antihemophilic factor concentrate hemophilia
indications for the administration of factor IX complex hemophilia B, clotting factor deficiency, warfarin overdose
indications for the administration of plasma protein fraction hypovolemic shock, protein replacement, burns, ARDS, dehydration, hypoalbuninemia
indications for the administration of albumin blood volume expansion, prevent and treat cerebral edema
indications for the administration of gamma globulins hepatitis exposure, mumps
the physician's order for the administratioin of blood or blood product must contain... type of component, volume, rate, any special conditions
before infusion of blood products, the nurse must verify... physician's order, patient consent form
this type of transfusion reaction is caused by the administration of ABO incompatible blood acute hemolytic
signs and syptoms of acute hemolytic reaction chills, fever, low back pain, flushing, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, vascular collapse
this transfusion reaction is caused by sensitization to donor white blood cells, platelets, or plasma proteins febrile, nonhemolytic
signs and symptoms of febrile reaction fever, chills, headache, flushing, anxiety, muscle pain
this transfusion reaction is caused by sensitivity to foreign plasma proteins and results in flushing, itching, and hives allergic
this type of infusion reaction is caused by administration of fluid faster than circulation can accomodate, and results in cough, dyspena, pulmonary congestion, headache, hypertension, tachycardia, and distended neck veins circulatory overload
this transfusion reaction is the result of contaminated blood sepsis
what immediate reaction should the nurse take if he/she observes signs or symptoms of a transfusion reaction? stop transfusion, administer saline, notify charge nurse or physician
this vascular access device is inserted throught the chest wall into the subclavian vein, or through the neck into the internal jugular vein PICC (perhipherally inserted central catheter)
how long do PICC lines normally remain in place? 7 days to 3 months
these vascular access devices are implanted surgically through a subcutaneous tunnell CVTC central venous tunneled catheter
types of CVTC's broviac, groshong, hickman
you must use this type of needle to access implanted devices huber needle
how often should central line dressings be changed? once at 24 hours, and then every seven days thereafter
what does SASH stand for, in relation to medication administration through a VAD saline, administer, saline, heparin
complications of VAD's infection, air embolism, occlusion, improper placement
how must placement of a PICC or CVTC be verified? xray
what is the best position for the administration of oral medications? upright, (fowlers, high fowlers)
how much water should you used to flush the NG tube before and after administration of meds? 30-50 mL
where should you read the amount of a liquid medication? at the meniscus
these medications dissolve at room temperature suppositories
what is one essential piece of equipment before applying a topical medication to a patient? gloves
what is the correct placement of eye drops? conjunctival sac
how many drops can the conjunctival sac hold? two, usually
what should you ask the patient to do after the application of eye drops or ointment to speed absorption? blink or move eyes
what temperature should eardrops be at before applied? room temperature
which way should you pull a child's (under three) ear to straighten the auditory canal? downward and back
which way should you pull an adults ear to straighten the auditory canal? upward and back
what should you have your patient do before administering nasal sprays or drops? blow nose gently
how far from the mouth should an inhaler without spacer be held? 1/2 to 1 inch
how much does a tuberculin syring hold? 1 mL
how large should a syringe be (at a minimum) for use on a central line? 10 mL
what are insulin syringes calibrated to? units
how often should blood glucose be monitored for a patient on TPN? every 6-8 hours
how often should vital signs be monitored for a patient on TPN? every 4-8 hours
in blood transfusion, what flow rate should be set for the first 15 minutes? 2mL/minute
Created by: ewoff85