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All About Blood

M6 PII Blood Administration

What are the three functions of Blood? Transportation, pH Regulation, Protection
What body system is responsible for Blood Transportation? Circulatory
RBC's are also referred to as? Erythrocytes
WBC's are also referred to as? Leukocytes
What two types of Leukocytes are there? Granular & Non-Granular
Name the three "phils" Basophil, Eosinophil, Neutrophil
What are the two types of Non-Granular Leukocytes? Monocyte & Lymphocyte
What is the Sodium Chloride concentration for Blood? 0.9%
Plasma makes up what percentage of blood volume? 55%
WBC's and RBC's make up what percentage of blood volume? 45%
What is the function of Hemoglobin? carries oxygen from lungs to cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs
RBC size is usually expressed as? Macrocytic, Microcytic, Normocytic
The average life span of a RBC is how many days? 120
Where are RBC's continuously produced in? red bone marrow
The production of RBC's is known as? Erythropoiesis
What triggers Erythropoiesis? enzyme released by kidneys (Erythropoietin)
What is a Hematocrit? test that measures packed volume of RBC's
A decrease in Hemaglobin causes what? less oxygen to cells which causes less energy production/cellular function (ANEMIA)
What is a "differential WBC count" used for? identification in WBC increase to determine hidden infection
Where do Granulocytes develop? Red Bone Marrow
What is Phagocytosis? process in which bacteria, cellular debris, and solid particles are destroyed and removed
What is the function of Lysozyme? enzyme released by Neutrophils to destroy certain bacteria
Bone marrow stores how many Neutrophils? 6 day supply
Describe "bandemia". usually seen in patients with serious bacteria infections where Neutrophil reserves are completely depleted and immature Neutrophils are being released in "bands"
When are Eosinophils released? during allergic reactions
What do Basophils respond to? inflammation
What do Basophils release? Histamine (during tissue damage or invasion)
What role do Monocytes play? the "combat medics" of the blood (they remove dead bacteria and cells during tissue/cell injury)
What is the function of Lymphocytes? form antigen-antibodies for future protection
Two types of Lymphocytes. B cells and T cells
What are the functions of B cells? search out, identify, bind, and destroy
What are the functions of T cells? divide, reproduce, and destroy
What are the smallest cells in the blood? Thrombocytes (AKA Platelets)
What is the lifespan of Thrombocytes? 5-9 days
What three actions take place to prevent hemorrhage? vessel spasm, platelet plug, clot formation
Where are antibodies found? In the blood plasma
Where are antigens found? In the plasma membrane
What blood type is Universal DONOR? Type O
What blood type is Universal RECIPIENT? Type AB
Name two types of adverse blood transfusion reactions. Agglutination & Hemolyzation
What happens to the RBC's during Agglutination? donor cells clump together and occludes arteries
What happens to the RBC's during Hemolyzation? antibodies cause donors RBC's to rupture and release their cell contents
What is Polysynthemia? overproduction of blood cells
What is the normal blood volume for men? 42-52%
What is the normal blood volume for women? 37-47%
What are the three proteins in Plasma? Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen
Function of Albumin. thicken and maintain blood volume
Function of Globulin. protect us from infection through antibodies
Function of Fibrinogen. necessary for blood clotting
Adults average how many liters of blood? 4-6
Normal Hemoglobin level for men. (g/dl) 14-16g/dl
Normal Hemoglobin level for women. (g/dl) 12-16g/dl
Normal Neutrophil percentage level. 60-70%
Life span of Neutrophil. 7 hours
Normal Eosinophil percentage level. 1-4%
Normal Basophil percentage level. 0.5-1%
Normal Lymphocyte percentage level. 20-40%
Normal Monocyte percentage level. 2-6%
What is Thrombocytopoenia? reduced platelet count
Name two indications for Whole Blood? Hemorrhage, Hypovolemic Shock
Name two indications for Fresh Whole Blood? Multiple transfusions, Exchange Transfusions
Name three indications for Packed RBC's? when whole blood could result in circulatory overload, symptomatic Anemia, Hemoglobin <6 g/dL
Name two indications for Deglycerolized RBC's? extreme hypersensitivity, bone marrow transplant clients
Name three indications for Fresh-Frozen Plasma? clotting deficiencies, warfarin overdose, blood volume expansion
Name three indications for Plasma Exchange? immune related disorders, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus
Name two indications for Platelets? history of febrile or allergic reactions, Thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
Physician order for blood administration needs to specify what four things? Type of blood, Volume, Infusion Rate, and specific conditions
Infusion consent form should be signed no more than? 72 hours prior to transfusion
What is an Autologous Transfusion? patient donating their own blood for later use
A blood product must be used within __ minutes of leaving the blood bank. 30
What should the nurse complete after a blood transfusion? vital signs
Name 6 types of transfusion reactions. Anaphylactic, Circulatory Overload, Sepsis, Mild Allergic, Febrile Non-Hemolytic, Acute Hemolytic
Created by: raoul.lopez