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Microbiology exam #1

chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 25

Who developed Nomenclature for Microbiology? Carolus Linnaeus.
Microorganism (definition) Organism, so small that it is UNABLE to see with the naked eye.
Pathogen (definition) Microorganism that causes diseases.
Who defined Archae? and by doing so, created three different domains, Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Carl Woese.
Prokaroytes; (Archaea and bacteria) Eukaryotes; (everythng else).
Bacteria: 1)Prokaryote. 2)Undergoes binary fission. 3.Unicellular (One cell)
What is peptidoglycan? 1)Polymer of sugar found outside the plasma membrane of bacteria, forming the cell wall.
What is peptidoglycans function? 1)Forms the cell wall structure of bacteria. 2)Prevents osmotic lysis. 3.Involved in binary fission.
Archaea: 1)NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN. 2)Can have cell wall but without peptidoglycan. 3. Extremophiles: found in extreme conditions.(Volcanos, cold places) 4.Similar to bacteria,(Unicellular) 5.Prokaryote
Eukarya: 1)Unicellular/Multicellular. 2)Eukaryotes. 3.NO Peptidoglycan
Nomenclature: (definition) 1)Carl linnaeus. 2) Binomial (2 names)(ie: Escherichia coli). 3.System of naming things.
What did Carl Linnaeus do? 1)first started naming organisms into Kingdoms, order,class, family, genus,species. 2. Invented Binomial nomenclature.
Protozoa: 1)Unicellular. 2)Eukaryotes. 3.Pseudopodal movement: can move(False feet) 4.Parasites: (found in soil)
Fungi: 1.Unicellular/Multicellular. 2.Chitin: Armor or cell wall (made up of carbs). 3)Mold:Usually grows in lungs. 4)Yeast: usually grows in skin. 5)Some can switch between mold and yeast.
Algae: 1)Multicellular (some unicell). 2)photosynthetic; O2 Production. 3)Cellulose: provide most O2 we (humans)have.
Helminths/Multicellular parasitic worms. 1)Multicellular. 2)Some visible. 3)3 Categories: Round, Flat and Tapeworms.
Viruses: 1)Acellular (no cells). 2)Not alive (No ribosomes). 3)Use hosts(no ribosome, must have host to replicate). 4)Simple structure.(dna or rna and capsid).
Who is the father of the 'microscope'? 1)Robert hook.
What did Robert hooke do? 1)First microscope. 2)Cell theory: Everything is made up of cells.
Who first identified microorganisms? Leeuwenhoek: father of microbiology.
What is spontaneous generation? 1) idea that living things come from nonliving things 2) ie: maggots coming from meat.
Who came up with the idea, spontaneous generation? Leeuwenhoek.
Who made the first vaccine? Edward Jenner.
Who invented the 'smallpox' vaccine? Edward Jenner.
What did Edward Jenner do? 1)First vaccine 2)invented small pox vaccine
What is the biogenesis theory? Living things can only be produced by living things.
Who originally came up with the biogenesis theory? Virchow.
Who developed aseptic techniques? (medical instrument cleaning) Louis pasteur
Who invented pasteurization? Louis Pasteur.
What did Louis Pasteur do? 1) aseptic techniques. 2)Pasteurization. 3)Rabies vaccine.
Who invented the Rabies vaccine? Pasteur
Germ theory? That microorganisms are the causes of many diseases.
Etiology: definition. cause of disease.
Who developed the 'germ theory'? Robert koch.
Who started 'immunology'? Paul Ehrlich.
Who originally treated 'syphilis'? Paul Ehrlich.
What is salvarsan? Arsenic drug originally used by Erhlich to treat syphilis.
Who invented 'penicillin'? Alexander FLEMING.
Who started the antibiotics? Fleming.
What did Paul Ehrlich do? 1)Immunology 2)treated syphilis with salvarsan.
What did Fleming do? 1)started antibiotics and 2)Invented Penicillin.
What are some benefits of microbes? 1)recycling 2)sewage 3)body metabolism 4)Food industry (cheese,wine,yeast) 5)Pharmaceuticals
What are detremental activities of microbes? 1)Disease 2)Food spoilage.
Prokaryotes: 1)No nucleus. 2)bacteria has peptidoglycan. 3)no mitochondria. 4)prokaryotes makes energy more efficient. 5)No golgi or ER. 6)70S ribosomes (smaller). 7) Bacteria has 1 chromosome, circular and is bound to cell membrane. Eukaryotes: 1)true nucleus. 2)multiple linear chromosome. 3)cell division by mitosis. 4)bigger ribosome 80S. 5)No peptidoglycan.
How do prokaryotes do cell division? Binary fission.
Do prokaryotes have a nucleus? A nucleus space is present but there is NO nuclei.
How many Ribosomes do prokaryotes have? 70S
Who has bigger ribosomes, pro or eukaryotes? Eukaryotes have 80S, Pro has 70S. Eukaryotes has bigger.
Where does energy production occur in Prokaryotes? Cell membrane.
Bacteria: morphology. size = 1000 micrometers Shapes: 1)Circle, coccus (diplo). 2) Rod/line bacillus, Strep. 3) Rod(1 turn) spiral.
What is group translocation? Using it as soon as it comes in the cell, a reaction occurs that requires energy.
What are plasmids? 1)Located in the DNA area, responsible for resistance to antibiotic. 2)Circular piece of dna that contains specific genes on them, can go form one organisms to another.
Prokaryote Ribosome? 70S. 2 subunits, 30S and 50S.
Virulence? Degree of pathogenicity.
Endospores: 1)Gram positive 2)dehydrated 3)thick wall.
What is the function of the cell wall? 1)Shape 2)Protection 3)Virulence
Cell wall structure: 1)peptidoglycan(2 saccharides) 2)NAG +NAM (crosslinks): makes the wall stronger.
Gram stain: What color is positive and negative? 1)Gram positive: purple or blue. 2)gram negative: pink or red.
What is unique with gram positive cells? 1)The walls are made up primarly of peptidoglycan. 2)Techoic acids help bind it together.
Gram negative cell wall: 1)little peptidoglycan. 2)outer membrane. 3)porin: a protein that acts as a pore. 4)LPS:molecule made up of carbs/fats 5)Lipoprotein, connects and holds outter membrane to peptidoglycan.
Describe outside the cell wall: 1)Glycocalyx is the outtermost on outside cell wall. 2)sticky polymer helps bacteria attach. 2)
what happens if the glycocalyx is not well oragnized? 1)if WELL organized it will be a capsule, providing protection. 2)if NOT WELL org it will be a slime layer, that will provide attachment but little protection.
What does flagella do? Helps some bacteria move, propel.
Axial filaments? 1)spirochetes: moves like a snake.
what is fimbriae? 1)hairlike 3)surface area. 2)Easier to spread.
What is Pilli? sex pilli. 1)conjugation, transfer of gentic material from donor to recepient cell through a pilli via plasmid.
Catabolism 1_degradative 2)exergonic 3)hydrolytic
anabolism: 1)biosynthetic 2)endergonic 3)dehydration
ATP, function? 1)way of storing energy 2)ADP+P+Energy
What is the purpose of breaking bonds? To make energy.
Substrate: 1)What enzymes acts upon. 2)Specific substrate for each specific enzyme
Apoenzyme: 1)Protein portion. 2)Inactive enzyme.
Holoenzyme: 1)Active enzyme with cofactor.
What is a organic cofactor called? Conenzyme
What does a cofactor do? Changes the shape of the apoenzyme so that the substrate can fit thus making a apoenzyme active.
What are Electron carriers? 1)NADH and FADH2 2)Molecules that carries electrons.
What kind of temperature do enzymes works best in? Higher temp
What is denaturing? When a protein shape gets changed due to high temps thus making it useless.
What is competitive inhibitors? (blockage) Looks like the actual enzyme and makes the substrate bind to it, thus preventing the sub from binding to the real enzyme.
Noncompetitive inhibitors? (active site alteration) Allostric site. Binds to enzyme and changes the shape.
What is oxidation? when you lose a electron.
What is reduction? You gain a electron.
What is the difference between respiration and fermentation? 1)The FEA for resp is inorganic (O2) 2)The FEA for Ferm is organic (carbon).
What happens if the FEA is organic? 1) There will be no ETC.
What is the final electron acceptor? (FEA) 1)the last compound that gets oxidized and reduced. (gains E-)
NADH + FADH2 1) electron carriers that take electrons to the ETC to make atp.
Glycolysis: 1)When glucose is broken down to make 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.
Where is the ETC located? 1)Inner membrane of mitochondria.
What is the purpose of moving Electron down the FEA? 1)To make energy to pump hydrogen outside. 2)When H+ moves outside, it moves the ATP pump, creating energy to make ATP.
Where does glycolysis occur? 1)Cytoplasm for both EU/PRO.
Where does Krebs cycle occur? 1)Cytoplasm:Pro 2)Mitochondria: EUK
ETC occurs where? 1)PRO: cell membrane 2)EUK: Inner membrane of mitochondria.
What is DNA? sequence of bases.
What are genes? 1)Piece segment of DNA or RNA and code for a specific product.
What are chromosomes? 1)A bunch of genes together with protein that produces it.
what are genomes? 1)The whole genetic material that makes up a organism. (chromosome+genes)
DNA: Describe. 1)Double-stranded 2)Phosphate groups, deoxyribose, and bases (nitrogenous).
What is base pairing? Some base only pair with each other bcuz of their shapes.
Complementary strands: 1)Specific base pairing: A=T, G=C. 2)Exactly the same if read in the opposie directions.
What are phenotype and genotype? 1)Phenotype are the physical characteristic 2)genotype is a symbol.it is what genes you have.
Bacteria has semi-conservative replication, what is that? 1)makes a parent strand plus a new strand.
what direction is dna replication? 3’End OH- at 3rdC 5’End PO4- at 5thC
What are the steps in replication? 1)unwinding 2)leading strand:(make continuosly) 3)lagging strand: (make in fragments) 4)ligation: two dna strand are the same just in opposite direction.
what is dna helicase? 1)Keeps the DNA open.
what is Dna gyrase? 1)Unwinds/opens the DNA.
Dna polymerase adds bases where? 1)At the 3 prime end.
Which end does Dna polymerase synthesize? 1)From 5 prime to 3 prime end.
What are Kazaki dna? 1)pieces or fragment dna that are made in lagging strand of dna that has to be fused together by dna ligase in order to make a dna.
Where does Rna polymerase make rna? 1) at 5 prime end to 3 prime end.
Define rRNA, tRNA and mRNA. 1)rRNA: makes up ribosome 2)tRNA: long strand of RNA 3)mRNA: carries info from DNA.
What is a codon? 1) sequence of 3 bases that code for something.
How many words are possible from DNA and proteins? 1)64 words from dna. 2)20 AA= Unlimited words from proteins.
Where is Codon found? 1) each codon codes for a specific AA 2)some codon can code for the same AA. 3)FOUND in mRNA.
where is Anticodon found? 1)tRNA 2)ie: AUG = UAC
How many ATP is made by SLP? 1) ATP. 2 from glycolysis and 2 from Krebs.
How many ATP is made from 0xidative phosphorylation? 1)34. 6 from G and 30 from OP.(8 NADH=24 ATP)(2 FADH2=4 ATP.)
Created by: guialanlin88