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Science Final

most logical explanation; big bang theory theory
the experimenter controls or decides what happens controlled
the group that does not have an independent variable control group
group that contains the variable experimental group
factor the experimenter changes or tests independent variable
factor that changes because of the independent variable dependent variable
factor that stays the same for all groups in an experiment constant
standard system of measurement used by scientists all around the world metric system
difference between 2 points ; meter ; m ; meter stick length
amount of space an object takes up ; liter ; L ; graduated cylinder volume
amount of matter in an object ; gram ; g ; triple-beam balance mass
amount of heat energy a substance has ; celcius ; c ; thermometer temperature
d=m/v density=mass/volume
solid, liquid, gas, plasma phases of matter
solid that has particles that are arranged in a regular, repeating patter crystalline solid
when a substance undergoes a change in one of its physical properties, but remains the same kind of substance physical change
a. relationship between volume and pressure b. volume ^ = pressure v Boyle's Law
a. relationship between temperature of a gas and its volume b. temperature ^ = volume ^ Charles's Law
a. PV=nRT b. Boyle's + Charles's Law Ideal Law
characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance ex. color,shape,volume,density,texture physical property
describes how a substance changes into other new substances ex. flammability chemical property
when a substance undergoes a change in one of its physical properties, but remains the same kind of substance ex. cutting a paper physical change
chemically combining different substances to make a new substance ex. fireworks exploding chemical change
2 different types of homogeneous mixtures colloid & solution
a. particles are mixed, but not dissolved b. particles will not separate c. appears cloudy ex. milk, toothpaste colloid
2+ substances in a single physical state solution
metal solutions ; solids dissolved in solids ex. brass=copper+zinc alloy
matter consisting of 2+ substances mixed together, but do not chemically combine mixture
a. do not combine b. keep most of their properties c. can be separated by physical means 3 main properties of mixtures
a. "least-mixed" b. doesn't look the same throughout the mixture ex. concrete heterogeneous mixture
a. "well-mixed" b. looks the same throughout the mixture ex. milk homogeneous mixture
smallest part of an element that has all the properties of an element atom
particles that are smaller than an atom subatomic particles
proton, neutron, electron 3 main subatomic particles
large, heavy particles (+) proton
large, heavy particles (0) neutron
tiny, light particles (-) electron
center of an atom nucleus
wave that surrounds the nucleus of an atom electron cloud
most likely location in an electron cloud in which an electron can be found energy levels
the # of protons in an atom atomic number
in a neutral atom, # protons = # electrons (true/false) true
the # of protons + neutrons in an atom mass number
average of the masses of the existing isotopes of an element atomic mass
2 atoms with different #s of neutrons isotopes
particle that makes up all other known particles in the nucleus of an atom quark
can either attract or repel the particles on which it acts electromagnetic force
opposes the electromagnetic force of repulsion between protons strong force
responsible for radioactive decay weak force
the force of attraction exerted between all objects in nature gravity
1.strong force 2.electromagnetic force 3.weak force 4.gravity strongest -> weakest force in the atom
number of valance electrons increases/decreases form left -> right on the periodic table increases
energy to remove an electron increases/decreases from left -> right on the periodic table increases
size of the atom increases/decreases from left -> right on the periodic table decreases
size of the atom increases/decreases from top -> bottom on the periodic table increases
metallic properties increases/decreases from left -> right on the periodic table decreases
(family) vertical column on periodic table, tells # of valence electrons group
horizontal row on periodic table, tells # of energy levels period
a. left side of table b. luster (shiny) c. good conductors d. high density e. high melting point f. ductile g. malleable h. lose electrons i. corrosion- wearing away due to chemicals metal properties
a. right side of periodic table b. dull c. poor conductors d. low density e. low melting point f. not ductile g. not malleable h. gain electrons i. brittle non-metal properties
elements that have properties of metals + non-metals ; elements on step line metalloid
a. white + shiny b. good conductors c. very reactive d. most active metals Alkali Metals
a. 2 valence electrons b. never found in nature as uncombined elements Alkaline Earth Metals
a. good conductors of heat + electricity b. lose electrons c. fairly reactive d. 1/2 valence electrons transition metals
a. 3 valence electrons b. composed of metals and metalloids boron family
a. 4 valence electrons b. composed of metals, non-metals, and metalloids carbon family
a. 5 valence electrons b. metals, non-metals, and metalloids nitrogen family
a. 6 valence electrons b. non-metals + metalloids oxygen family
a. 7 valence electrons b. react with all alkali metals easily halogen family
a. rare + found in small amounts b. normally unreactive but will be combined chemically under certain conditions noble gases
a. lanthanoid series (1)- soft, malleable, high luster, conductivity b. actinoid series (2)- radioactive Th + U = only elements that occur in any extent in nature c. 2 rows at bottom of periodic table rare-earth elements
the combining of atoms of elements to form new substances chemical bonding
electron in outside energy level valence electron (e-)
bonding that requires the transfer of electrons ionic bonding
a charged atom ion
the process of removing electrons + forming ions ionization
the tendency of an atom to attract electrons electron affinity
regular, repeating arrangement crystal lattice
bonding in which electrons are shared rather than transferred covalent bonding
chemists represent the electron sharing that takes place in a covalent bond electron-dot diagram
2 atoms covalently bonded (same element) diatomic element
the combination of atoms formed by a covalent bond molecule
covalent substances whose molecules are very large because the atoms involved continue to bond with one another (have high melting points) network solid
a group of covalently bonded atoms that acts like a single atom when combining with other atoms polyatomic ion
process in which substances undergo physical and chemical changes as they change into new substances with new physical and chemical properties chemical reaction
shorthand way of representing a chemical reaction chemical equation
atoms can not be created nor destroyed in a reaction law of conservation
mass of reactants = __________ mass of products
combination of chemical symbols used to represent a compound chemical formula
number written in front of the chemical formula that tells the number of molecules of the compound coefficient
number written to the lower right of the chemical symbol that tells the number of atoms of that element subscript
coefficient X subscript counting atoms
# of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation are not equal unbalanced equation
# of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation are equal balanced equation
combining 2+ simple substances to form a single more complex substance (2 things form 1) synthesis
a complex substance is broken down into 2+ simpler substances (1 thing forms 2) decomposition
a single, uncombined element replaces an element that is part of a compound single replacement
elements in 2 different compounds replace eachother, 2 elements switch compounds double replacement
energy is taken in by the reacting substances endothermic reaction
energy is released by the reacting substances exothermic reaction
energy needed to begin a chemical reaction activation energy
study of the rates of chemical reactions; how quickly reactants change into products kinetics
the rate of a _____ is affected by 4 factors: concentration, surface area, temperature, and catalysts reaction
substance that increases the rate of a reaction, but is not changed in the reaction catalyst
background or object that motion is compared to; most common is earth frame of reference
a change in position in a certain amount of time motion
rate at which an object moves speed
speed that does not change over time constant speed
total distance moved divided by the total time elapsed (d/t=?) average speed
speed given in direction velocity
the difference of the final speed and the initial speed change in speed
rate of change in velocity acceleration
determines how difficult it is to stop an object's motion momentum
mass X velocity = ? momentum
a push or a pull force (Newtons)
equal forces being applied in opposite directions, no change in motion and no acceleration balanced forces
unequal forces being applied in different directions, causes change in motion and acceleration unbalanced forces
force that opposes the motion of an object friction
when 2 solid surfaces rub together sliding friction
created by wheels and ball bearings rolling friction
caused by liquids or gases fluid friction
substance used to decrease friction lubricant
objects in motion stay in motion and objects at rest remain at rest...unless acted upon by an outside force newton's first law
property of matter that tends to resist any change in motion inertia
force equals mass X acceleration newton's second law
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction newton's third law
region of space with no air resistance vacuum
an instrument that makes work easier machine
work that goes into a machine work input
work done by the machine work output
comparison of work output to work input efficiency
a force acting through a distance work
the rate at which work is done, or the amount of work per unit time power
force applied to a machine effort force
force that machine tries to over come resistance force
a rigid bar that rotates around a fixed point lever
pivot point of a lever fulcrum
ex. seesaw 1st class lever
ex. door 2nd class lever
ex. tweezer 3rd class lever
a simple machine consisting of a large wheel rigidly secured to a smaller wheel or shaft called an axel wheel and axel
rope or belt wrapped around a grooved wheel pulley
pulley that does not rise/fall with the load being moved fixed pulley
pulley that rises/falls with the load being moved movable pulley
an even sloping surface inclined plane
a modified inclined plane used to either seperate/hold devices wedge
modified inclined plane with the threads of the screw as a type of circular ramp screw
ability to do work energy (joules)
energy associated with motion mechanical
energy involved with the motion of the atoms of matter heat energy
energy that exists in the bonds that hold atoms together chemical energy
energy associated with moving charges electromagnetic energy
energy from the fusing or splitting of the nuclei of atoms nuclear energy
energy that a moving object has due to its motion kinetic energy
energy of position; stored energy potential energy
potential energy that depends on height above the Earth's surface gravitational potential energy
changes in the form of energy energy conversion
flow of charge electric current
potential difference voltage
increases voltage step-up generator
decreases voltage step-down generator
discovered relation between electricity and magnetism e->m Hans Oersted
found out electricity could be produced from magnetism m->e Michael Faraday
device with magnetic materials within its coils electromagnet
process by which current is produced by changing the magnetic field electromagnetic induction
long coil of wire that acts like a magnet when current flows through it solenoid
device that uses electromagnets to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy motor
device that uses electromagnets to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy generator
traveling disturbance that carries energy from one place to another wave
movement that follows the same path over and over again vibration
wave that disturbs a medium mechanical wave
wave that consists of electromagnetic field and doesn't require a medium to exist electromagnetic wave
wave in which the motion of the medium is at right angles to the direction of a wave transverse wave
wave in which motion of medium is parallel to the wave longitudinal wave
the # of waves produced in a given amount of time frequency
waves per second hertz
amount of energy carried by a wave in a certain amount of time intensity
current produced in a wire induced current
Created by: jherb97