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What You Should Know for the Earth Science Regents

If pressure and temperature are constant, the density of any substance is always ______. the same
As pressure increase on a solid or a gass, density ______. increases
As temperature of matter increase, its density _______. decreases
Water _______ when it freezes. expands
The closer the isolines are the ______ the slope or gradient. steeper
Many changes are ______ (an event that repeats itself). cyclic
Water is most dense at ___ degrees Celcius, when it is a liquid. 4
When calculationg percent deviation, the _______ value is the correct answer while the ________ value is subject to error. accepted, measured
Dynamic equilibrium means _______. balance
Earth ______ short waves (visible light) and ______ long waves (infared energy). absorbs, radiates
The true shape of the Earth is a(n) ________. oblate spheroid
The best model of the Earth at any reasonable scale is a(n) ________. perfect circle
The altitude of Polaris equals your ________. latitude
Latitude lines are drawn _____ - _____ and measure angular distance ______ and ______. east - west, north and south
Longitude lines are drawn ______ - ______and measure angular distances _____ and _____. north - south, east and west
Longitude is based on _____________. observations of the sun
The Earth rotates from ____ to _____ (25 hrs). west to east
The Earth revolves __________ (365.25 days) when viewed from above the North Pole. counterclockwise
The sun appears to rise in the _____ and set in the _____. east, west
The moon has phases because the ______ between the Earth and moon changes as the moon revolves around us, one half always lit angle
Planets appear to ________ (retrograde) as the Earth passes them in space. go backwards
Summer Solstice: _____ Winter Solstice: _____ Equinoxes: ___________ June 21st December 21st March 21st and September 23rd
To an observer in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere facing north, stars appear to make a ________ around Polaris (North Star). complete circle
Blue Shift: object is getting ____ to Earth. Red Shift: object is getting _______, providing evidence that the universe is ______. closer, further away, expanding
Equator always has ____ hours of daylight. 12
The lower the altitude of the sun, the _____ the shadow it casts. longer
The Coriolis Effect results from the Earth's ______. the Foucault Pendulum illustrates teh Coliolis Effect and so 'proves' the Earth's ______. rotation
The Earth is ______ to the sun in the winter. closer
The Closer the planet is to the sun the ______ its velocity and the further the planet is from the sun, the ______ its velocity. higher, slower
The sun is one ____ on an ellipse. There is _______ at the other ____. foci, nothing
______ objects absorb energy and _____ objects reflect. black, white
Apparent diameter of objects (sun, moon) gets ______ when the object is closer to Earth. larger
Vertical rays (overhead sun) can only occur between ______ and ______. 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S
Winds curve to the _____ in the northern hemisphere and to the ____ in the southern hemisphere due to the Earth's ________. (Coriolis Effect) right, left, rotation
Energy moves from source to sink: _____ to ____. high to low
Air moves _______ and ________ around a high pressure system. clockwise and outward
Air moves _________ and ________ around a low pressure system. counterclockwise and inward
Good absorbers of radiation are good _________. radiators
The hottest part/month of the year is in _____ in the Northern Hemisphere. July
The hottest time of the day is after _____. 1 p.m.
As the temperature increases, air pressure ________. decreases
As atmosphere moisture (humidity) increases, atmospheric pressure ________. decreases
Air pressure _______ with altitude. decreases
Cooler and drier air generally exerts ______ pressure. Warm, moist air generally exerts ______ pressure. higher, lower
Wind is the result of ______________. pressure differences
Wind blows from _____ to _____ pressure. high to low
Wind is named for the direction that it ___________. comes from
The closer the air temperature is to the dew point the _______ the chance for ___________. higher, precipitation
Weather moves from _____ to _____ in the U.S. west to east
With the passage of a cold front, the temperature and humidity _______, the pressure _____. decrease, rises
With the passage of a warm front, the temperature and humidity ________, the pressure ________. increase, decreases
__________________ are formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front. Occluded fronts
_______ fronts move the fastest. Cold
As air rises, it _______ and ______. expands and cools
__________ does not depend on particle size. Porosity
As particle size increases, permeability ________. increases
Capillarity _________ when particle size decreases. increases
Ep (potential evapotranspiration) depends on _____________. temperature
Water bodies ___________ temperature. moderate
Adiabatic cooling occurs as rising air ______. The air _______ because the pressure on it is _________. expands, decreasing
Most surface water runoff occurs if the soil is _____, precitiation rate _______ permeability rate, soil is _________ and ______ of the land is too great. bare, exceeds, saturated, slope
Chemical weathering dominates in ______, _______ climates. warm, humid
Physical weathering dominates in _____ climates (good for frost wedging). cold
________ is the driving force behind erosion. Gravity
________ are currently the number one agent of erosion in New York state. Streams
Stream velocity depends on ________ and ________. slope (gradient) and discharge
Velocity is greatest on the _______ of meander bends in a river/stream. outside
Heavy, round and dense particles settle out _____. first
Water sorts sediments by size vertically, with the _______ sediments on the bottom (only if sediments settle in still water). biggest
_________ : Earth's crust in equilibrium. Isostacy
_____________ is a buried erosion surface that represents a gap in the geologic/rock record. Unconformity
The four principal types of drainage pattern are related to the underlying regional geology. They are: ________, _________, ________ and ________. Dendritic (random), Rectangular, Radial and Trellis (block)
When a rock is broken into smaller pieces ___________ increases and weathering rate __________. surface area, increases
Mineral properties depend on ______________. internal atomic arrangement
Ocean crust is _____, ______ and ________. thin, dense and basaltic
Continental crust is _____, _______ and _________. thick, less dense and granitic
Sedimentary rocks are commonly ________ and almost all ______ are found in them. layered, fossils
Igneous rock: cools fast = _____ crystals; cools slow = ______ crystals small, large
Metamorphic rocks have a _________-____________ structure. banded-distorted
The silicon (Si) oxygen (O) tetrahedrom is the building block of ________ materials, the most abundant on Earth's crust. silicate
Arid landscapes have ______ slopes with ______ angles. steep, sharp
Humid landscapes have ______, ________ slopes. smooth, rounded
Mid-ocean ridges is where ____________ is being created because of ________________. new earth, seafloor spreading
Trennches are were earth is being _________ at ___________ zones. destroyed, subduction
P-waves are ________ than S-waves. faster
P-waves pass through liquids, solids and gases (that's way people can hear earthquakes). "S"-waves can only travel through ______. "s"olids
You need ____ seismometer stations to triangulate the epicenter of an earthquake. 3
__________________ in the mantel move plates. Convection currents
The orientation of the Earth's magnetic field has _________ with time. reversed
_______________ states the earth's crust is broken into plates which can move. Plate tectonics
The three main types of plate boundaries are __________, ___________, and __________. convergent, divergent, and transform
Mountains form by ________. uplift
The _________ of a radioactive element can't be changed. half-life
Index fossils are good time markers because those organisms lived in ________ for a _________. widespread areas, short amount of time
___________ strata is when the bottom layer of rock is the oldest. Undisturbed
Intrusion and faults are _______ than the rock they are in. younger
Uranium 238 (U 238) dates ____ rocks. old
Carbon 14 dates ______ ________ objects. recent living
USE YOUR _____________! Earth Science Reference Tables
Created by: knicolej