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Terminology Chp 1&2

Medical Terminology

QuestionAnswer
constant foundation and core of medical term root
are usually greek or latin roots
all medical terms have one or more roots
more than one root can have the same meaning root
a root plus a combining vowel creates combining form
are joined to other elments in medical terms by placing a combining vowel roots
the combining vowel is seperated by a slash (/)
presence of air in space that surrounds the lungs in the chest pneumothorax
an element added to the end of a root or combining form to give the word a new meaning. changes the meaning of a word. suffix
means pertaining to/relating to -ary (suffix)
passage of blood through lungs pulmonary circulation
means the study of -logy (suffix)
study of lung pulmonology
means a condition -ia (suffix)
means a process -ation (suffix)
if it begins with a consonant or vowel, it must follow a comibining form suffix
a few medical terms can have two suffixes
always appears at the end of a term suffix
precides a root to change its meaning prefix
can have more than one meaning prefixes
an occasional medical term can have two prefixes
always appears at the beginning of a term prefix
not every term has a prefix
usually indicate time, color, number or location prefix
pertaining to birth natal
means before pre (prefix)
means after post (prefix)
means around peri(prefix)
before birth prenatal
afterbirth postnatal
around the time of birth, includes the time immediately, before, during and after perinatal
pertating to -al (suffix)
means one uni (prefix)
one side of the body unilateral
both sides of the body bilateral
means pertaining to -ic (suffix)
means above epi (prefix)
above the stomach epigastric
means below hypo (prefix)
below the stomach hypogastric
large macro (prefix)
small micro (prefix)
one who studiees or is a specialist in a specic field -logist(suffix)
muscle myo
heart cardi
means a structure -um(suffix)
heart muscle myocardium
pertaining to the heart muscle myocardial
means disease -pathy (suffix)
dx of the heart muscle cardiomyopathy
blood condition -emia(suffix)
to block -isch
blockage of bloodflow ischemia
blockage of bloodflow to the heart muscle myocardial ischemia
pertaining to a condition -emic (suffix)
pertaining to a blockage of bloodflow ischemic
an important component in ensuring patient safety and providing high quality pt care proper pronounciation of medical terms
a bone in pelvis IlIum
segment of small intestine IlEum
gland at base of male bladder prostate
physically weak/exhausted or lie flat on the ground prostRate
low blood pressure hypotenstion
high blood pressure hypertension
below normal pressure hypotension
above normal pressure hypertension
tube from kidney to bladder ureter
tube from bladder to the outside urethra
introduction of substance other than blood thru iv infusion
transfer of blood transfusion
large red blood cell macrocyte
infant born after 42 weeks postmature
small red blood cell microcyte
pertaining to a small red blood microcytic
area of cell death, resulting from blockage of its blood supply infarkt
sudden blockage of an artery infarction
armpit axilla
pertaining to the armit axillae
Lining of a tubular structure that secretes mucous mucosa
an involuntary response to a stimulus reflex
backward flow reflux
a thin wall separating two cavities or two tissue masses septum
pertaining to suffering from low blood pressure hypotensive
Advanced Cardiac Life Support ACLS
Active Myocardial Infarction AMI
Morphine,Oxygen, Nitroglycerine, Aspirin Mona
is the only horizontal body plane transverse plane
body is standing erect w/feet flat on floor, face and eyes facing forward and arms are @ side with palms facing forward supine
when you lie down flat on your belly, you are prone
describe the position of one structure or part of the body relative to another directional terms
what are the three major anatomical planes transverse/horizontal, saggital, frontal
plane passing across the body parallel to the floor and perpendicular to the body's long axis. it divides the body into upper and lower parts transverse/horizontal
vertical plane. divides body into right and left saggital
vertical plane that divides the body into front and back frontal
part of the trunk between the thorax and pelvic abdomen
infront anterior
near to tailbone caudal
near to the head cephalic
pertaining to vertical plane divides the body into anterior and posterior portions coronal (same as frontal)
situated away from the center of the body distal
pertaining to the back dorsal
situated at the side of a structure lateral
near the middle medial
situated nearest to the center of the body proximal
lying face up flat on your spine supine
pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the surface of the belly ventral (same as anterior)
what are the five body cavities that do not open to the outside cranial cavity, thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity, spinal cavity
contains the brain within the skull cranial cavity
contains heart, lungs, thymus gland, trachea, esophogus and numerous blood vessels and nerves thoracic cavity
seperated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm, contains stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney admonical cavity
surrounded by pelvic bones, contains urinary bladder part of large intestine, rectum, anus and internal reproductive organs pelvic cavity
contains spinal cord spinal cavity
abdominal and pelvic cavity can be called abdominopelvic cavity
hollow space or body compartment cavity
muscular sheet, seperates the abdominal and thoracic cavity diaphragm
pertaining to the diaphragm diaphragmatic
one quarter of a circle. one of four regions of the surface of the abdomen quadrants
part of the trunk between the abdomen and neck thorax
pit in the abdomen ambilicus
the whole body or organism is composed of organ systems
are composed of organs organ systems
are composed of tissues organs
tissues are composed of cells
are composed in part of organelles cells
organelles are composed of molecules
are composed of atoms molecules
result of fertilization of an egg by a single sperm zygote
this cell is the origin of every cell in your body. it divides/multiplies into millions of cells that are the basic unit of every tissue and organ zygote
smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence cell
study of cell cytology
structure with specific structures in the body organs
physical therapy assistant PTA
cells contain a fluid called cytoplasm
is surrounded by a cell membrane cytoplasm
is made of proteins and lipids cell membrane
it allows water, oxygen, glucose, electrolytes, steroids, and alcohol to pass thru cell membrane
are located on the outside of cell membranes receptors
bind to chemical messengers receptors
small structures in the cytoplasm, they carry out specific metabollic task organelles
nucleus, nucleolus, and mitochondria organelles
source of hereditary characteristics found in chromosomes DNA
substance that when dissolved in a suitable medium, forms electrically charged particles electrolytes
thin layer of tissue covering a sructure or cavity membrane
constantly changing physical and chemical processes occurring in the cell that are the sum of anabolic and catabolic metabolism
class of food substance based on amino acids proteins
chemical substance found in many drugs, hormones and body components steroids
chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ hormone
the largest organelle nucleus
it directs activities of the cell, it is surrounded by its own membrane. nucleus
small dense body composed of RNA and protein. it is involved in the manufacture of proteins from simple material. nucleolus
manufacture of proteins from simple material. anabolism
powerhouse of cell mitochondria
produces energy by breaking down compounds, such as glucose and fat mitochondria
the process of breaking down compounds, such as glucose and fat catabolism
body in the nucleus that contains DNA and genes chromosomes
information carrier from DNA in the nucleus to an organelle to produce protein molecules RNA
hold body together tissues
the four primary tissue groups are connective, epithelia, muscle and nervous
bind support, protects, fills spaces, stores fat connective
widely distributed t/o the body connective
protects, secretes, absorbs, excretes epithelial
covers body surfaces, covers and lines internal organs, composes glands epithelial
movement muscle
attaches to bone, in walls of hollow internal organs and in the heart muscle
transmits impulses for coordination, sensory receptors, motor actions Nervous
brain, spinal cord, nerves Nervous
visual examintaion of interior joint arthroscopy
shaped like a cross cruciate
transplantation of live tissue graft
band of fibrous tissue connecting two structures ligament
disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint miniscus
bones of the knee femur, tibia and patella
the hardest connective tissue bone
bones are covered with a thick fibrous tissue called periosteum
has a flexible rubbery matrix, allows it to function as a shock absorber and a gliding surface where two bones meet to form a joint cartilage (in the knee it is the miniscus)
has very few blood vessels and heals poorly or not at all cartilage
forms the shape of your ear, tip of nose and larynx cartilage
strips/bands of CT made of collagen ligaments
are thick, strong ligaments that attach muscles to bone tendons
encloses the joint cavity and is made of thin fibrous CT. joint capsule
strengthened by fibers that extend over it from the ligaments and muscles surrounding the knee joint joint capsule
lines many joint capsules and secretes synovial fluid. synovial membrane
this fluid is a slippery lubricant retained in the joint cavity by the capsule synovial fluid
it makes joint movement almost friction free and distributes nurtients to the cartilage on the joint surface of the bone synovial fluid
stabilizes the joint Muscle tissue
extensions of tendons of the large muscles in front of, and in the rear of the knee major stabilizers of the knee joint
fibrous tissue layer surrounding a joint or other structure capsule
major protein in CT, cartilage and bone collagen
substance that surrounds and protects cells. is manufactured by the cells and holds them together matrix
fibrous membrane covering the bone periosteum
has 11 organ systems the body
skin,hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands intergumentary
protect tissues, regulate body temperature and supports sensory receptors intergumentary function
bones, ligaments, cartilage skeletal
provide frame work, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, sort inorganic salts skeletal functions
cause movement, maintain posture, produce body heat muscular functions
receive interpret sensory information, simulate muscles and glands nervous tissue functions
glands that secrete hormones: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovary, testes, pineal, thymus endocrine
control metabolic activities of organs endocrine functions
heart, blood vessels cardiovascular
move blood and transport substances throughout the body cardiovascular function
lymph vessels, nodes, thymus, spleen lymphatic
defend body against infection, return tissue fluid to blood, carry certain absorbed food from molecules lymphatic tissue function
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestine digestive
receive, breakdown and absorb food, eliminate unabsorbed material digestive functions
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs respiratory
intake and output air, exchange gasses between air and blood respiratory functions
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra urinary
remove waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte, balance, store and transport urine urinary funcitons
scrotum, testes, epididymes, vasa defentia, seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis male reproductive
ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva female reproductive
organ system that covers the body, the skin being the main organ winthin the system integument
the terms myocardial and myocardium both refer to the heart
the prefix in intravenous means within
maintains the bodies internal enviroment homeostasis
which term is the opposite of caudal and the same as superior cephalic
-tens pressure
ket/o ketone
-acid/o acid
neur/o nerve
retin/o retina
-pnea breathe
gastr stomach
later side
-cyte cell
knowledge of an abnormal conditions -gnosis
recognize an abnormal condition -gnose
electricity electr/o
area of dead tissue -farct
to block isch
mind -ment
mucus muc
cervic neck
pressure -tens
to pour -fusion
vein -ven
urine ur/o
tail caud
crown coron
away from the center dist
middle medi
nearest to the center proxim
belly ventr
to make fruitful fertiliz
cover,skin membran
change metabol
mit/o thread
granule -chondr
solid ster
build up anabol
break down catabol
color chrom/o
small cell -cellul
box capsul
glue coll/a
egg ov/i
bone oste
nourish nutri
to secrete crine
the same home/o
covering of the body integument
to breathe respir
Created by: nperez