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CM Exam 1 Summer

Hemodynamics, Pacemakers

Amount of blood leaving the ventricle with each contraction Stove Volume
What is the normal stroke volume 60 to 100 ml/beat
The amount of blood leaving the left ventricle per minute CO=HR X SV
Low CO bradycardia, hypotension, MI, dysrhytmias, electrolyte imbalances, fluid overload
High CO tachycardia, hyperthyroidism, exercise, stress
Normal CO 4 to 8L
Cardiac Index CI= CO/BSA Normal is 2.4 to 4 L
Ejection Fraction The percentage of blood ejected with each heart beat Normal is 65% Less than 35% serious ventricular failure
Contractility Force generated by the myocardium Normal is 10 to 12 greater than 12 HF
Positive inotropes Increase contractility catecholamines, SNS, Dopamine, Dobutamine, Epinephrine, Norephinephrine
Negative inotropes Acidosis, hypoxemia, alcohol, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, barbituates
CVP Reflects pressure in the vena cava and right atrium Normal is 2 to 8 mmHg Direct measure Preload
Low CVP hypovolemia, sepsis, diuresis, hemorrhage
High CVP cardiac tampanode, pulmonary HTN, renal failure, hypervolemia, fluid resuscitation
LVEDP Preload Volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole Normal 6 to 12
High LVEDP IV failure, myocardial ischemia, constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tampanode, MV disease, fluid volume overload
Low LVEDP Fluid volume deficit, shock states, vasodilating medications
SVR (MAP-CVP)X80/CO Normal is 800 to 1200
High SVR constriction, hypovolemia, valve disorders, hypothermia, decreased contractility
Low SVR hyperthermia, vasodilation, drug therapy
The distal port wave form in the pulmonary artery looks like what other waveform? Arterial wave form with a dicrotic notch
What does a dicrotic notch indicate End of systole and beginning of diastole
Created by: ljj46955