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Module 4, Nutrition

Information on MyPryramid, Nutrition, and other Module 4

State the Factors that determine food choices taste, availability, accessibility, cost, personal preference, socialization, ethnicity, culture/religion, advertising, lifestyle, emotions, geography, health goals, disasters
Sources of general nutrition information Media Selective Sources(official reports and programs, significant persons
Sources of information for children TV parents teachers and school
Sources of nutrition info for teens Tv, internet, parents(especially mothers), peers, teachers and school, coaches
Sources of nutrition info for students Tv, magazines,internet, college coursees, peers
Sources of nutrition info for men Tv, radio, newspaper, magazines, books, friends, health provides, wives mothers and other females
sources of nutrition info for women Media books family and friends health care providers
Demographic Trends Influencing Food Habits Diverse population, immigration, aging population, and family structure
Food Consumption Patters Americans are consuming more foods, more food is wasted, more families are eating OUT (8/10), increase in meat/poultry consumption
Food trends eating out, more frozen meals eaten(no prep convenience), more meat and potatoes (hamburgers 1st then chicken), ethnic foods, specialty dairy, functional foods w/ added ingredients, skipped lunches is most common, drinking cals, snacking between meals
Top food trends to watch Cooking with healthier oils, more fruits and veggies, soy, organic and locally grown foods, causal indulgences, new condiments, more cheese and custom foods, interest in healthy eating and children's health
9 Recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and describe each: 1Adequate nutrition w/ in calorie needs 2Weight Management 3Physical Activity 4Food groups to ENCOURAGE 5Fats 6Carbohydrates 7Sodium and Potassium 8Alchohol 9 Food Safety
1.Adequate nutrition w/ in calorie needs limit sat/trans fats, sugar, alcohol, and meet recs from MyPYramid
2. Weight Management Balance cals from foods and beverages w/ cals expended, and decrease food intake and increase PE if you want to lose wt.
3. Physical Activity Movement of the body that uses energy; 30 minutes of moderate or vigorous a day
Moderate Physical Activity walking briskly, hiking, gardening, yard work, dancing, golfing, biking, wt. training
Vigorous Physical Activity running/jogging, biking more than 10mph, swimming, aerobics, walking fast, heavy yardwork, wt. lifting, basketball
To reduce chronic disease 30 minutes of moderate PA 5-7 days/week
To manage body weight 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity 5-7 days a week and not exceeding daily nutrition intake
To maintain weight loss 60-90 minutes of daily moderate intensity PA 5-7 days a week
4 Food groups to encourage 2 cups of fruit and 2.5 of veggies daily, 3 oz of whole grains daily (1/2 whole), 3 cups of milk daily
5. Fats Limit saturated and trans fatty acids, chose lean/low fat; only 20-35 percent of cals shoudl come from fat; less than 300mg of cholesterol daily
6. Carbohydrates Choose fiber rich foods like fruis, whole grains; reduce intake of sugars; 14 grams of fiber per 1000 cals (Americans consume 10 or less)
Recomendations for Fiber intake Men under 50 (38g), women under 50 (25), men over 50 (30), women over 50(21 g)
7. Sodium and Potassium less than 1 tsp salt daily or 2300mgs, if have hypertension like many African Americans less than 1500 mgs; Potassium: 4700mgs daily
8. Alcohol 1/ day and 2 for men
9. Food safety avoid foods w/ viruses/bacteria, wash fruits/veggies, separate raw and cooked foods, don't wash raw poultry and meats
Relationship between Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid MyPyramid incorporates Dietary guidelines for people over age of 2; takes into account age, gender, activity level
6 emphasized areas of MyPyramid 1. Personalization 2. Gradual Improvement 3. Physical Activity 4. Variety 5. Moderation 6. Proportionality
Food Groups in the Pyramid 1. Grains 2. Fruits 3. Vegetables 4. Fats/oils 5. Meats/ Beans 6. Milk
1. Grains Recommendations women 6oz; Men 8oz; 1 oz (slice of bread, cup of cereal, 1/2 cup of rice or pasta or oatmeal)
2. Vegetable Recommendations reduce risk of disease Women 2.5 cups daily; Men 3 cups daily (1 cup= juice or raw/cooked)
5 types of vegetables 1. Dark green 2. Orange 3.Dry beans and peas 4. Starchy 5. Other (okra, broccoli, tomatoes, okra)
3. Fruit recommendations (fiber, vitamin C benefits) 2 cups daily, go easy on juices (I cup= banana, apple, 32 grapes, orange, 1/2 cup dried fruit)
4. Milk (protein, calcium, vitamin C) 3 cups daily (1 cup= milk, yogurt, 1.5 oz cheese, 2 oz. processed cheese)
5. Meats and Beans (protein, iron, meat/poultry, eggs, nuts, seeds, beans) women 5.5 oz, men 6.5 oz daily; most Americans get enough meat but need to eat leaner meat (1 oz= 1 egg, 1 tbsp. PB, 1 oz meat)
6. Oils and Fats Oils are liquid at room temperature and come from plants, fish, nuts, plants(don't contain cholesterol); solid fats come from animals and are made into veggies from HYDROGENATION;
Oil recommendations 6 tsp for women, 7 for men; most exceed because of fried foods (1 tbl= 3 tsp oil, 1 oz nuts=3 tsps oil, 2 tbl Pb= 4 tsps)
Calorie Recommendations Women 19-30 (2000 for sedentary and 2400 for active); Men 19-30(2400 or 3000 if active)
Discretionary calorie allowance 100 to 300 extra calories that you can eat that your body doesn't need for energy (extra for foods high in fat/sugar)
Critiques of pyramid water isn't addressed, heavily driven by agriculture industry, meat group isn't subdivided, red meat is in group w/ beans and tofu
Who creates food labels? FDA and created Nutrition facts 1994; USDA regulates meat and poultry
Exemptions from labels: Non-packaged foods, raw fruits/veggies, seafood, spices, restaurant foods
Nutrition facts include: serving size, calories, fat, sodium, and other nutrients
Serving size on Label based on amount people usually eat. Look at this first
Calories on Label Check serving size
Fat on Label shows total fat, saturated, trans, cholesterol, sodium (less than 2300mg/day)
Total Carbohydrate on Label Includes sugar and fiber(most americans don't get enough fiber, 25-30 grams daily); foods should have 3 grams/serving
Vitamins and Minerals on Label Vitamin A, C, Calcium, Iron
Percent Daily Value DV shows the percentage of a particular nutrient in one serving of food; 5% low, 20% or more is high
Listing of ingredients are listed in descending order by wt., avoid foods high in saturated fats
FALCPA Food Allergen Laeling and Consumer Protection Act 2004 imposed New labeling requirements on foods that contain major allergens; must name food source which allergen is derived of say "contains___"
Major Allergens Milk, soybeans, wheat, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts
Organic Foods in the way handled, grown, processed; doesn't mean natural produced by farmers who use renewable resources and conserve water/soil to enhance env. for future generation; meat/poulty isn't given hormones/antibiotics/pesticides
organic definitions 100%- entirely from organic sources; organic- 95%; made w/ organic- 70%, some organic- less than 70
Calorie Free Less than 5 cals
Fat free/sugar free Less than .5 gram/serving
Low sodium less than 140mg of salt/serving
Low calorie less than 40 cals/ serving
Low cholesterol less than 20mg. of cholesterol and 2gm/ fat
reduced descriptor 1/4% less calories
Good source of______ at least 10% of DV nutrient
High in_____________ 20% or more of DV
High Fiber 5 or more grams/ serving
Lean in meat 10g or less, 4.5 saturated
Light 1/3 fewer cals, 1/2 fat
Healthy decreased fat, sodium, cholesterol
Dietary Reference Intakes DRI (forms EAR, RDA,AI, UL) comprehensive set of nutrient reference values for healthy populations that can be used for planning diets; established by scientists
Estimated Average Requirements EAR expected to satisfy the needs of 1/2 of people in age group based on literature and are basis of RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA average daily amount of any one nutrient that an individual needs to protect against nutritional deficiency
Adequate Intake AI provided if there isn't enough information set on RDA; less accurate
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels UL to caution against excessive intake of nutrients like Vitamin A
How many calories in 1 gram of fat? 9 cals
How many calories in 1 gram of carbs or protein? 4 cals
How many calories in 1 gram of alcohol? 7 cals
6 major nutrients 1.water 2.protein 3.carbohydrates 4.fats 5.vitamins 6.minerals
Most importnat nutrient and RDA water; 6-8 glasses/ day;
Carbohydrates give our body fuel and main source of energy! BASE of our diets; comprised of sugars("empty cal" no nutrients) and fiber
Fiber recommendations 25 mg for women; 38 for men
Types of Carbs Simple sugars, complex carbs(pasta), fiber
Protein comes from plants(incomplete) and animals(complete) (10 percent of cals) muscle builders and comprised of 9 essential amino acids
9 essential amino acids or proteins lysine, leucine, histidine, methionine, Isolecuine, threonine, tryptohan, valine, phenylaine
Do Americans get enough protein? Yes, too much, its stored as fat
Fats principal form of stored energy (calorie), stimulate appetite, make food tender taste good,
3 classes of lipids Sterols, phospholipids, and triglycerides( visible fat on meat)
3 types of dietary fats saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats
saturated fats bad fats, are solid at room temp and come from animals and some from plants(palm cocunt)
polyunsaturated fats healthier than saturated, but less than monosaturated; omega 6 fatty acids, omega 3 fatty acids
monounsaturated fats healthiest; may lower cholesterol (olive oil, canola oil)
Cholesterol made in animal livers, and causes heart disease
trans fatty acids fat produced through hydrogenation and processed foods
Vitamins(body needs 11) organic substances needed in small amounts and dont have calories
Fat soluble vitamins ADEK
water soluble vitamins C and B
Minerals inorganic substances and body needs 20
Major minerals Calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, sulfate; Trace(iron, magnesium, zinc, flouride, idodine, nickel, tin, silicon)
Created by: jujutsagaris