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Ecology (Chapter 5)

IB HL Biology

What is a species? A group of organisms that can be interbreed and produce fertile offspring with a common gene pool (common genetic background).
What is a habitat? The environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
What is a population? A group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.
What is a community? A group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
What is an ecosystem? A community and its abiotic environment.
What is ecology? The study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment.
What is an autotroph? An organism that synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances.
What is a heterotroph? An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms.
What is a consumer? An organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed.
What is a detritivore? An organism that ingests non-living organic mater.
What is a saprotroph? An organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
What is a food web? A diagram of the elaborate interconnected relationships within an ecosystem based on feeding and energy transfer.
What is a trophic level? The position that an organism occupies in a food chain or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains.
What is the siginificance of light in ecology? It is the initial energy source for almost all communities.
How does energy flow in a food chain? In a _____, energy flows by: energy losses between trophic levels including: 1) material not consumed 2) material not assimilated 3) heat loss through cell respiration
During an energy transfer, how much energy is lost? 90% on energy is lost
What are the reasons for the shape of the energy pyramids? These illustrate the quantity of energy within the biomass of each trophic level only a portion of energy in any level is transferred to the next, commonly being 10-20% of the plant biomass consumed by a typical herbivore
Created by: Sweet Kay