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HY Renal Path

Day 15.2

QuestionAnswer
MC nephrotic syndrome in children Minimal change disease
IF: granular pattern of immune complex deposition; LM: diffuse capillary thickening membranous glomerulonephritis
IF: granular pattern of immune complex deposition; LM: hypercellular glomeruli acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
IF: linear pattern of immune complex deposition Goodpasture's
IF: deposition of IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 in the mesangium IgA nephropathy
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions (nodular glomerulosclerosis) diabetic glomerulonephropathy
MC nephrotic syndrome in adults Membranous glomerulonephritis
EM: loss of epithelial foot processes minimal change disease
Nephrotic syndrome assoc'd with HepB membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I
Nephrotic syndrome assoc'd with HIV focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Anti-GBM antibodies, hematuria, hemoptysis Goodpasture's
EM: subendothelial humps and tram-track appearance membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Nephritis, cataracts, deafness Alport syndrome
LM: crescent formation in the glomeruli rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis (RPGN)
LM: segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
purpura on back of arms and legs, abdominal pain, IgA nephropathy Henoch-Schonlein purpura
LM: wire-loop appearance diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to SLE
Apple-green birefringence with Congo-red stain under polarized light amyloidosis
EM: spiking of the GBM due to electron dense subepithelial depositis membranous glomerulonephritis
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: RBC cast acute glomerulnephritis (#1), ischemia, or malignant HTN
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: WBC cast acute pyelonephritis, tubulointerstitial inflammation, transplant rejection
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: bacterial cast acute pyelonephritis
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: epithelial cell cast renal tubular damage
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: waxy cast advance renal disease/chronic renal failure
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: fatty cast nephrotic syndrome
Under what circumstances would you see the following type of cast?: granular cast acute tubular necrosis
Glomerular histology reveals multiple mesangial nodules. This lesion is indicative of what disease? Diabetic glomerulonephropathy
A teenager presents with nephrotic syndrome and hearing loss. What is the disease? Alport syndrome
A 4yo boy presents with facial edema and proteinuria. What is the appropriate treatment? Steroids (he has minimal change disease)
UTI caused by proteus vulgaris. What type of renal stone is this pt at risk for? Ammonium-Mg-P stone--> Staghorn calculi
A pt reports a long term h/o acetaminophen use. What is she at increased risk for? Renal papillary necrosis secondary to phenacetin (toxic metabolite of acetaminophen)
What a prevents a horseshoe kidney from ascending in the abdomen? inferior mesenteric a
Fever, rash, eosinophilia, and azotemia. What is the disease and what is the treatment? Acute Interstitial Nephritis (usually drug-induced) rsulting in acute renal failure. Tx: 2 weeks of corticosteroids
4+ blood in urine, no RBC on urine cell count, renal failure, elevated CPK. What is the disease? Give 3 common causes of this disease. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN). 3 causes: drugs, radiograph contrast dye, and rhabdomyolysis/myoglobinuria (due to m breakdown from seizure disorder, cocaine, or crash injuries).
What is the WAGR complex? Wilms' tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary malformations, mental Retardation
What are the risk factors for transitional cell CA? Phenacetin, Smoking, Aniline dyes, Cyclophosphamide (Pee SACk)
What are the causes of acidosis with an elevated anion gap? Hint: cows make this =) MUDPILES: Methanol, Uremia, DKA, Paraldehyde and Phenformin, Isoniazid and Iron tablets, Lactic acidosis, Ethanol, Salicylates
What changes will be seen in a basic metabolic panel in a pt with renal failure? increased K, increased P, increased BUN/Cr, and decreased Ca
A CT scan reveals massively enlarged kidneys bilaterally. What is the diagnosis? Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: correcting too rapidly may result in central pontine myelinosis hypOnatremia
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: peaked T waves hyperkalemia
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: tetany hypOcalcemia
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: arrhythmias hyper and hypOkalemia, low Mg
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: decreased deep tendon reflexes hypermagnesia
Which electrolyte disturbance fits the following presentation?: flattened T waves, U waves on EKG hypOkalemia
MC tumor of the urinary tract system transitional CA
MC renal malignancy of early childhood (2-4) Wilms' tumor
Histologic appearance of renal cell carcinoma polygonal clear cell CA
Histologic appearance of chronic pyelonephritis thyroidization of kidneys, dilation of tubule
Fever + Rash + Hematuria + Eosinophilia Acute Interstitial Nephritis (AIN)
Cancer assoc'd with Schistosoma haematobium SCC of the bladder
Tx for cystine kidney stones Alkanization of urine
Created by: sarah3148