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Quick Recall

Questions out of different question banks out there

Where are deposits found in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis subendothelial and messangial space
Most important cytokine mediator in septic shock TNF (secreted by Macrophages)
Glomeruli of DM pts with end stage renal dz most often shows nodular Glomerulosclerosis
1st step in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia LDL cholesterol oxidation
MC type inflammatory marker in muscle biopsy of pt with polymiositis CD8 and Macrophages
Functions of IgG opsonize bacteria, neutralize toxins/viruses, fix complement
Test for antibodies Enzyme-linked Immuno Assay
Part of the microtubule that Griseofulvin acts on alpha/beta-tubulin dimer of spindle fibers
G (+) bacilli with beta-hemolysis Lysteria monocytogenes
Rx for hypokalemic alkalotic pt with SCC of lung Ketokenazole (blocks ACTH production)
What are heart failure cells hemosiderin laden macrophages
Hallmarks of pulmonary edema Intraalveolar fluid, engorged caplillaries, hemosiderin-laden macrophages
Rx for agranulocytosis caused by Clozapine Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor
Rx herpes simplex encephalitis Acyclovir
MOA Acyclovir acyclic guanosine derivative that inhibits viral DNA (activated by viral thimidine kinase)
Pathologic appearance of a Myxoma scattered spindle cells with scant pink cytoplasm with in a loose stroma
“Ball-valve” in Left Atrium Myxoma
Enzyme deficiency in Maple Syrup Urine Dz alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenease
Enzyme that degrades branched-chain aa’s alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase
Action of diphtheria toxin inhibits protein synthesis via blockage of tRNA translocation from A to P sites
MOA cholestyramine bind and excrete bile-soluble acids
MC found congenital heart dz in adults patent foramen ovale
8 essential aa’s Leucine, Lysine, Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Threonine, Valine
Irreversible enzymes for glycolysis Hexo/Glucokinase, PFK-1, Pyruvate Kinase, Pyruvate DH
MCC acute renal failure in hospital setting Acute Tubular Necrosis
3 Characteristics of Horner’s Sx Ptosis, Anhidrosis, Miosis
Pathology of Horner’s Sx Disruption of the sympathetic innervations to ipsilateral side of face
From what nerve roots is the pudendal nerve driver S2-4
Point of exit of the pudendal nerve Greater Sciatic Foramen
MC brain stem stroke Wallenberg’s Sx (aka Lat. Medullary Sx)
MOA Benzo’s increase frequency of Cl channel opening
Most specific test for syphilis Flourescent Treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS)
Region of lymph nodes underdeveloped in DiGeorge Sx Paracortex
Type of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma highly assc with Reed-Sternberg cells Mixed Cellularity H. L.
RX for myelosuppression caused by Doxorubicin GM-CSF or Molgramostin
Absent biceps reflex is indicator of what nerve damage Musculocutaneous
What does PALS stand for Peri Arterial Lymphatic Sheath (spleen)
Prophylactic therapy for p. jiroveci pneumonia in HIV pt with sulfa allergy Aerosolized pentamidine
Structures in the cardinal ligaments Uterine vessels
Structures in the suspensory ligaments Ovarian vessels
Structures in the Round ligament none
Structures in the Broad ligaments ovaries, fallopian tubes, and round ligament
RX Mild pulmonary Blastomycosis Fluconazole or Ketoconazole
Rx systemic Blatomycosis Amphotericin B
I.F. and Gastric Acid are secreted by Parietal cells
How is vitamin A absorbed via micelle-mediated transport in GI
Enzyme deficiency in classic galactosemia galactose-1-P Uridyl transferase
Enzyme deficiency in fructose intolerance Aldolase B
Enzyme deficiency in essential fructorusria fructokinase
Pathology in which blood turns muddy brown when withdrawn Methemoglobinemia
Common sequela of Rotavirus infection shedding of intestinal brush border (Lactose intolerance)
Pentad of TTP Fever, Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure, Neurologic disturbances, Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schistocytes on smear)
Why is Guanine-Cystosine strongest Have 3 hydrogen bonds
Best therapy for pt with post strep glomerulonephritis supportive therapy
Type of bacteria where cell wall is the outermost structure G+, with thickest peptidoglycan cell wall
Dangerous complication of Kawasaki’s Coronary Aneurysms
MCC endemic encephalitis in US that can cause meningitis St. Louis Encephalitis (Flavivirus)
Acid-Base status with a panic attack Hyperventilation = acute resp alkalosis without met compensation
Types of cells destroyed in MS Oligodendroglia (CNS)
Types of cells in Guillain-Barre Sx Schwann cells (PNS)
Functions of vWF Adhesion of platelets to collagen via glycoproteins, Carrier molecule for factor VIII
Muscle MC weakened by carpal tunnel sx abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles
aa that contributes to net + charge of Histone Arginine and Lysine
MCC adult onset nephrotic sx Membranous GN
Child with flexed pronated position that was yanked w/ his outstretched arm Radial Head subluxation
Ligament torn with radial head subluxation annular ligament
Most likely injured ligament when ankle is rolled IN Anteroir talofibular ligament
Warm agglutination Chronic anemia seen in SLE, CLL, or certain drugs (alpha-methyldopa) (IgG)
Cold agglutination acute anemia triggered by cold, seen in m. pneumo or infectious mononucleosis
CO & SVR expected in septic shock Inc CO w/ Dec SVR
Types of cells commonly seen in CLL or SLL smudge cells (flattened lymphocytes)
Functions of B lymphos mature into plasma cells (response to foreign ag’s), produce ab’s as part of humoral system
Fibrous plaques are indicative of wh/ pathologic process atherosclerosis
% of arterial stenosis that a pt can first feel chest pain on exertion >75% (stable angina)
How do hormones produced in liver enter systemic circulation Hepatic veins then IVC
Long-term consequence of CO poisoning Cardiovascular DZ
Risk factors for Bronchogenic carcinoma of lung smoking and asbestos exposure (additive risk)
Ferruginous bodies asbestos exposure
RX for cryptosporidium supportive
DX for cryptosporidium oocysts on acid-fast stain of stool smear
Risk factor for PDA Congenital Rubella
Why is Ca2+ low in pt with metastatic prostate CA Ca2+ being used to build new bone in areas of mets
Result of stabilization of topoisomerase II complex with Etoposide Induction of apoptosis
Etoposide works on what part of cell cycle G2 Phase
DOC for Beta blocker intox Glucagon
Cause of Tetralogy of Fallot Ant. Sup. displacement of the infundibular septum
Stating that there is an effect when one doesn’t exist Type I (alpha) error
Stating that there is not an effect when one does exist Type II (beta) error
How can Null (H0) be rejected If Confidence Interval doesn’t include 0
Hypothesis of NO difference Null (H0)
Hypothesis that there is some difference Alternative (H1)
Beta is the probability of Making a type II error
Types of cells seen with beta-thalassemia Target cells
On which chromosome is the gene most often implicated with Breast CA found BRCA 1 – Chrom 17
Substance that will cause platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction in a DVT Thromboxane A2
DOC Anorexia Nervosa SSRI’s (Fluoxetine, Setraline, Paroxetine, Citalopram)
DOC CML Imatinib Mesylate
MOA DOC CML Inhibits anl bcr-abl (tyrosine kinase found >90% of CML)
Normal function of a histiocyte Phagocyte cell debris and pathogens and to act as an APC
Virus that causes Molluscum Contagiosum Poxvirus
Molluscum Contagiosum self-limiting rash characterized by pink papules, which may be umbilicated
MOA Procarbazine Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor
Type of bilirubin increased with biliary atresia Conjugated
Characteristics of stool/urine in Biliary Atresia Acholic stool with darkened urine
AKA Osteopetrosis Marble Bone Dz
Type of cells malfunctioning in Osteopretosis Osteoclasts
XRay image in Osteopretosis “Erlenmeyer Flask” bones b/c bone resorption and remodeling failure
Main physiologic function of HLA Bind foreign antigens and present them to antigen-specific T-lymphos
Where do D-dimers result from breakdown of fibrin clots
MC right-sided valvular DZ seen with carcinoid SX Tricuspid Regurg
Properties of glomerular BM Small pore size, Neg charged pore
Are “-Statins” competitive or noncompetitive Competitive HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor
CN’s that pass through Int. Auditory Meatus VII, VIII
CN’s that pass through Foramen Rotundum V2
CN’s that pass through Foramen Ovale V3
RX metastatic bone dz that may cause osteonecrosis of jaw Bisphosphonates
RX aplastic anemia caused by a previous chemotherapy G-CSF
MOA G-CSF glycoprotein growth factor that stimulates immature macrophages to differentiate in BM
ECG in pt w/ Acute Renal Failure Peaked T-waves due to kidney’s inability to excrete K (hyperkalemic)
Tissue types that use Glut-4 Adipose and Sk Muscle
Nerve damaged in Compartment Sx Deep Peroneal Ne
Sign of Ant Compartment Sx Unable to dorsiflex foot and decreased doralis pedis pulse
Glomerulonephropathy a/w subepithelial humps Post Strep GN
Glomerulonephropathy a/w granular subendothelial deposits SLE
Glomerulonephropathy a/w linear subendothelial pattern on glomeruli Vasculitis (Goodpastures)
Glomerulonephropathy a/w messangial deposits IgA Nephropathy
First lab procedure to determine a genotype of an embryo PCR (followed by Southern Blot)
CLL pts will have a clonal expansion of which type of cell B-lymphos
MOA Sumatriptan Agonist of 5 HT1B/1D receptor
Call-Exner bodies Granulosa cell tumor of the ovaries
Mode of inheritance of Pesudo-Hypoparathyroidism AD w/ variable penetrance
Shortened 4th/5th digits Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AD Kidney unresponsiveness to PTH)
Causes of pre-renal azotemia heart failure, sepsis, and renal artery stenosis
TB prophylaxis INH
Type of protein encoded by p53 gene Transcription Factor
Type of Hepatocellular injury commonly seen w/ acetaminophen OD Centrilobular Necrosis
Abdominal muscle a/w reflex in stroking inner thigh, scrotum and testes elevation Internal Abd Oblique
Nerves a/w reflex in stroking inner thigh, scrotum and testes elevation Ilioinguinal & genitofemoral Ne’s
Muscle a/w reflex in stroking inner thigh, scrotum and testes elevation Cremaster Muscle
Heart murmur a/w Angina, Syncope, Dyspnea + Weak and late pulses Aortic Stenosis
Heart murmur a/w Wide pulse pressure Aortic Regurge
Most frequent valvular lesion MVP
Heart murmur a/w wide fixed splitting ASD
Heart murmur a/w holosystolic “harsh-sounding” VSD
Heart murmur a/w late diastolic rumbling that follows O. Snap MS
MCC Rheumatic fever Strep pyogenes
Triad of Goodpasture’s Glomerulonephritis, Pulm hemorrhage, Anti GBM (smooth linear)
Part of CNs affected in Wallenberg’s Dorsolateral quadrant of Medulla and inferior surface of cerebellum
Enzyme most directly responsible for degrading a fibrin matrix Plasmin
Primary stimulus for insulin secretion Hyperglycemia
Subclavian Steal Sx Narroving in subclavian proximal to the vertebral artery
Beta-hCG is structurally similar to LH
Councilman bodies Yellow fever (hepatic dz)
Reason for breathing through “pursed” lips Inc pressure in larger conducting airways, preventing collapse and air trapping
Part of GI tract that reabsorbs fat sol and Vit B12 Terminal Ileum
MC inherited cause of Hypercoagulability Factor V Leiden
Drugs that cause Sulfa-Like Rx Tolbutamine, Chlorpropamide, Metronidazole, Procarbazine
Nematode ingested larvae in undercooked meat Tridrinella spiralis
Renal response in hemorrhage Inc filtration via intravascular fluid retention and efferent constriction
Results of congenital Rubella Deafness, PDA, Pulm artery stenosis, cataracts, microcephaly
Rx for Narcolepsy Amphetamines and Modafinil
Blood d/o with increased porphobilinogen levels in urine Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)
Enzyme def in Acute Intermittent Porphyria Uroporphyrinogen I Synthase
Mutation responsible for B-thalassemia Post transcriptional modification
MC DNA mutation in CF Deletion Mutation
MC opportunistic infection causing pneumonia in HIV pneumocystis jiroveci
RX pneumocystis jiroveci TMP/SMX or aerosolized pentamidine
Protein found in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer’s Dz Cytoplasmic microtubule binding protein TAU
Slapped cheek with arthralgias for several days & transient aplastic anemia Erythema infectosium (B19)
Complication with Measles 7-9 days later Subacute Sclerosing PanEncephalitis
Rash with high fever that can lat 3-5 d + conjunctivitis, otitis media, malaise Roseola (HHV-6)
Blanching macular rash developed on neck and spreads to face and extremities after fever Roseola
Descending rash starts on face, fever precedes rash, common lymphadenopathy Rubella (Rubivirus)
Fever, sore throat, strawberry tongue, rash on trunk, neck and limbs (spare palms/soles) Scarlet fever
Complications of Scarlet Fever TSS and Necrotizing fasciitis
S/E Chloramphenicol Gray baby Sx and aplastic anemia
How does TSST-1 cause Dz activates lg portion of T-lymphocytes, nonspecifically, causing aggregated immune response
S/S of TSST-1 toxin Fever, Hypotension, Diffuse macular rash
Media for Bordetella pertussis Bordet-Gengou medium (potato)
Functions of Thyroid H’s Brain maturation, Bone growth/turnover, B-adrenergic effects, Inc BMR
Defect in ion channels of the thick ascending Loop of Henle Bartter’s SX
Labs in Bartter’s Sx Hypokalemia, met. Alkalosis, hyperaldosteronism, inc renin, JG cell hypoplasia
G- rod, lactose fermenter, mucoid capsule, grows “viscous colonies” Klebsiella
Twin – division 4-8 days Monozygotic twins
Twin – division within 3 days either Monozygotic or Dizygotic twins
Describe Monozygotic twins 2 amnions, one placenta, one chorion
Describe Dizygotic twins 2 amnions, 2 placentas, 2 chorions
Classic triad of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Sx Fever, Abd pain, Vaginal discharge
“Violin string” adhesions in peritoneal cavity seen on laparoscopy Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Sx
Up to 25% of women w/ PID, perihepatitis, RUQ pain Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Sx
MOA Clozapine D1 and D2 antagonist
3 aa’s modified in Golgi Asparagine, Serine, Threonine
Coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted joint movement, high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes I-Cell Dz
Part of Golgi affected in I-Cell Dz phosphorylation of mannose at the cis-Golgi
Muscle that opens Jaw Lateral Ptyrygoid Muscle
Nerve that innervates muscle that opens Jaw CN V3
MC tumor of parotid gland Pleomorphic adenoma
Histology findings in Pleomorhpic adenoma multiple cell types, classically epithelial cells in stroma
Pathologies a/w IgA nephropathy Celiac Dz or Liver abnormalities (due to defect in IgA clearance)
1st sign of Magnisium Sulfate Intoxication Hyporefelxia, SA & AV blockade, drowsiness, Cardio arrest
MC Carpal bone Fx Scaphoid
Thumb print sign on XRay Epiglotitis
MC etiology of epiglotitis H. flue
Courvoiser’s Sign jaundice and palpable, enlarged, non-tender gallbladder (CA in head of pancreas)
RX delirium tremens Chlordiazepoxide (Benzo’s)
S/E Haloperidol Galactorrhea b/c D2 blockage and Neuromalignant Sx
Congenital Diaphragmatic hernia due to failure of pleuroperitoneal folds to form completely
Ab’s found in Grave’s Thyrotropin receptor stimulating antibodies
Lab Dx Diphtheria G+ Rods with metachromatic (blue&red) granules
Highly painful, slow spreading cutaneus erythema Erysipeloid (Erysipethrix rhursiopathiae)
Only bacterium with polypeptide capsule Anthrax (D-glutamate)
Types of cells invaded by Leprosy Schwann and Macrophages
Bacteria causing Pontiac fever Legionella pneumophilia
Layers of skin affected by psoriasis Inc. S. spinosum and Dec. S. granulosum
Acanthosis with parakeratotic scaling (nuclei still in stratum corneum) Psoriasis
Flat, greasy, pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation. “Pasted on” Seborrheic keratosis
Acute, painful sprewading infection of dermis and subcutaneous tissues Cellulitis
Pruritic papules and vesicles, “papulovesicular rash of skin-linear excoriations,” a/w celiac dz Dermatitis herpetiformis
Skin lesion a/w infections, drugs, cancers. Multiple types, macules, vesicles, target lesions Erythema multiforme
Pruritic, purple, polygonal papules. Sawtooth infiltrate of lymphocytes at dermal-epidermal junction, a/w Hep C Lichen Planus
“Cutaneous horn” Actinic keratosis
Hyperplasia of stratum spinosum, a/w hyperinsulinemia Acanthosis nigricans
Inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat, usually on anterior shins Erythema nodosum
“Herald patch” followed days later by “Christmas tree” distribution (grouping lesions) Pityriasis rosea
Skin cancer a/w arsenic exposure Squamous cell carcinoma
Skin CA a/w “palisading” nuclei, pearly papules with telangiectasias Basal cell Carcinoma
Skin CA a/w S-100, Breslow thickening, and p16 Melanoma
Brain tumor a/w pseudopalisading, pleomorphic tumor cells Glioblastoma multiforme
Brain tumor most often occurring in convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region, from arachnoid cells Meningioma
Brain tumor a/w psammoma bodies and new onset of seizures Meningioma
Brain tumor a/w S100, from Schwann cells Schwannoma
Brain tumor localized to CN VIII, usually found at cerebellopontine angle Acoustic Schwannoma
Brain tumor w/ “fried egg” (round nuclei with clear cytoplasm) Oligodendroglioma
Brain tumor MC found in posterior fossa, Rosenthal fibers Pilocytic (MC Children’s)
Brain tumor a/w projectile vomiting, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), hydrocephalus Medulloblastoma
Brain tumor a/w Rosettes or perivascular pseudorosette pattern, small blue cells (histo) Medulloblastoma
Brain tumor MC found in 4th ventricle, NF2, perivascular pseudorosettes, rod-shaped blepharoplasts Ependymoma
Brain tumor a/w von Hippel-Lindau Sx, can produce EPO, foamy cells Hemangioblastoma
Brain tumor a/w cystic spaces filled w/ thick brownish fluid that is rich in cholesterol Craniopharyngioma
Type of HS RXN for SLE Type 3
Type of HS RXN for hemolytic anemia Type 2
Type of HS RXN for Pernicious anemia Type 2
Type of HS RXN for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 2
Type of HS RXN for Erythroblastosis fetalis 2
Type of HS RXN for acute hemolytic transfusion reactions 2
Type of HS RXN for rheumatic fever 2
Type of HS RXN for Goodpasture’s Sx 2
Type of HS RXN for Bullous pemphigoid 2
Type of HS RXN for pemphigus vulgaris 2
Type of HS RXN for Graves’ Dz 2
Type of HS RXN for Myesthenia gravis 2
Type of HS RXN for Rheumatoid arthritis 3
Type of HS RXN for polyarteritis nodosa 3
Type of HS RXN for serum sickness 3
Type of HS RXN for arthus reaction 3
Type of HS RXN for hypersensitivity pneumonitis 3
Type of HS RXN for Type I DM 4
Type of HS RXN for Multiple sclerosis 4
Type of HS RXN for Guillain-Barre Sx 4
Type of HS RXN for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 4
Type of HS RXN for Graft-vs-host Dz 4
Stain used for Borrelia Giemsa
Stain used for Plasmodium Giemsa
Stain used for trypanosomes Giemsa
Stain used for Chlamydia Giemsa
Stain used for glycogen, muchoploysaccharides PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff)
Stain used for Whipple’s Dz PAS (periodic acid-Schiff)
Stain used for Crytococcus neoformans India ink
Stain used for fungi Silver stain
Stain used for ribosomal RNA Wright-Giemsa
Created by: snezya24



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