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BUCKS TRACTION Countertraction is supplied by the child's body; therefore it is essential that the child not slip down in bed and that the bed not be placed in high fowler's position.
GRAND MAL (TONIC CLONIC) SEIZURE most common generalized seizure. It has 3 distinct phases: 1) aura (subjective sensation) 2. tonic/clonic seizure followed by 3) postictal lethargy, a short period of sleep.
PETIT MAL SEIZURE absence, seizures often are recognized when an intelligent child is referred for medical evaluation because of unexplained failure to achieve in school. Reason is due to temp loss of awareness that results in lack of opportunity in learning evironment.
MYOCLONIC SEIZURE repetitive muscle contractions
INFANTILE SPASM SEIZURE occurs in infants under 1 yr of age and are manifested by jackknife posture for frequent but brief periods
PARTIAL SEIZURE can be manifested by motor activities, sensory signs or psychomotor activity.
REYE SYNDROME an acute noninflammatory encephalopathy and hepatopathy that follows viral infection in kids. Relationship between use of aspirin during a viral flu or illnesss such as chickenpox and the dev of this disease.
REYE SYNDROME s/s sudden onset of vomitting & altered behavior (lethargy, combativeness) or altered LOC after viral illness. In infants, diarrhea, hypoglycemia, tachypnea w apneic episodes & seizures may occur approx. 1 wk after resp illness.
HYDROCEPHALUS newborn condition characterized by an increase of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain which causes pressure changes in the brain and an increase in head size.
PERITONEAL SHUNTS the abdomen should be measured or observed to detect malabsorption of fluid.
MENINGOCELE - spina bifida spinal cord is normal but there is a defect in the bony canal. The meninges protrude through this defect.
MENINGOMYELOCELE - spina bifida more serious protrusion of the membranes and spinal cord through its opening. It may be associated paralysis of the legs and poor control of bowel and bladder functions.
HYPHEMA presence of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye. One of the most common ocular injuries. Appears as a bright red or dark red spot in from of the lower portion of the iris.
HYPHEMA - tx bed rest w HOB elevated 30 to 45 degrees. It decreases intraocular pressure and decreases intracranial pressure if there is an assoc head injury. Topical meds may be prescribed as well as diuretics and steroid.
HEARING IMPAIRMENT COMMUNICATION lip reading, sign language, writing, visual aids, body language. Be at eye level of the child, be face to face, establish eye contact, talk in short sentences, avoid using exagerrated face or lip movements
TISSUE PROFUSION - FYI cap refill should be less than 3 sec. if greater, it is a sign of abnormal blood flow circulation.
ASTHMA TX bronchodilators, antiinflamatory drugs, leukotriene modifiers, metered dose inhalers
TONSILITIS & ADENOIDITIS removal is T&A not recommended under 3 yrs of age. Freq swallowing while child is sleeping is s/s of bleeding
5 P's pulse, paresthesia, paralysis, pallor and pain
AMBLYOPIA "lazy eye" reduction in or loss of vision that usually occurs in children who strongly favor one eye. s/s tilting head side to side to read
AMBLYOPIA tx glasses, opaque contact lens, patching the good eye. It forces weaker eye to be used
SCOLIOSIS screening done before middle school. Entails observing the back while standing and bending forward. Simple, quick and painless. Instructed to wear clothing that is easy to remove
BRAIN TUMORS - S/S headaches, vomitting, drowsiness and seizures.
CONCUSSION - s/s short memory loss
MENINGITIS inflammation of the meninges(covering of the brain and spinal cord. Dr performs a spinal tap to obtain CSF. Child could not touch chin to chest. In OPISTHOTONOS position - involuntary arching of back & extension of the neck.
MENINGITIS - S/s headache, fever, drowsiness, delirium, irritability, restlessness, vomitting and stiffness of neck. High pitched cry in infants and convulsions are common
ENCEPHALITIS inflammation of the brain. Can occur as a complication of childhood diseases such as measles, mumps or chickenpox.
ENCEPHALITIS - NI observation for neurological changes. Speech, mental processes and motor abilities may be slowed and permit brain damage and mental retardation may result.
CEREBRAL PALSY group of motor disorders caused by dysfunction of various motor centers in the brain and often related to antenatal or developmental factors.
CEREBRAL PALSY - fyi can be caused by lead poisoning, head injuries, & febrile illness. Manifested by feeding problems, convulsions not assoc w high fever and developmental delays
CYSTIC FIBRROSIS major worldwide cause of serious chronic lung disease. Inherited recessive trait with both parents carrying a gene for the disease
CYSTIC FIBRROSIS - fyi s/s bulky, foul smelling frothy stools . Involves pancreas- impaired digestion and food absorption. Emphysema , atelectasis and clubbing of fingers
STREP INFECTION damage to heart and kidneys
LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE (COXA PLANA) grp of disorders in w/c the blood supply to the epiphysis (end of bone) is disrupted. Tissue death results from the inadequate blood sypply. It affects development of head of femur. May lead to degenerative arthritis LATER in LIFe!
DUCHENNE'S OR BECKERS MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY progressive muscle degeneration. sex-linked inherited disorders occurs only in boys. Onset is 2-6 yrs old. Calf muscles become hypertrophied. Freq falling, clumsiness, contractures of ankles and hips. Gower's maneuver: way of getting up off floor.
ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT abnormal opening between RIGHT & LEFT ATRIA. Blood already contains O2. No symptoms but murmur can be heard.
VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT most common heart anomaly. Opening between RIGHT & LEFT ventricles of the heart. INCREASED pressure w/in the LEFT ventricle forces blood back into the RIGHT ventricle (left to right shunt)
VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT - FYI LOUD HARSH MURMUR combined with a systolic thrill is characteristic. Antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary for dental care & minor surgeries to prevent BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS.
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS ductus areteriosus is the passageway (shunt) through w/c the blood crosses from the pulmonary artery to the aorta and avoids the deflated lungs. Causes O2 blood to recycle through the lungs, overburdening pulmonary circ & making the heart to pump harder.
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS - s/s may go unnoticed during infancy. As the child grows, dyspnea is experienced. The radial pulse becomes full and bounding on exertion. There is unusually wide range bet systolic & diastolic bp or PULSE PRESSURE. Characteristic MACHINERY TYPE MURMUR.
COARCTATION OF THE AORTA there is a narrowing or constriction of the aortic arch. CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOM: marked difference in the bp & pulses of the upper and lower extremities.
COARCTATION OF THE AORTA - fyi best time for surgery is between 2 to 4 yrs of age. Some kids may complain of leg pain after exercise.
TETRALOGY OF FALLOT (CYANOTIC) 1.stenosis or narrowing of pulm artery (dec bld flw lungs) 2.hypertrophy of the RT ventricle (enlarges bec it must work harder to pump bld through narrow pulm artery) 3. dextroposition of aorta (displaced to rt & bld fr both ventricles enters it) 4. VSD
TET SPELLS spontaneous cyanosis, resp distress, weakness & syncope occur. CHILD - squatting position. INFANT - knee chest position.
CONTUSION tearing of subcutaneous tissue results in hemorrhage, edema & pain. The escape of blood into the soft tissue is referred to as hematoma or black & blue mark.
SPRAIN when the LIGAMENT is torn or stretched away from the bone at the point of trauma, there may be resulting damage to the blood vessels, muscle and nerves. Swelling, disability & pain are major signs of a sprain.
STRAIN microscopic tear to the muscle or tendon occurs over time and results in edema and pain.
OSTEOMYELITIS infection of the bone that generally occurs in kids younger than 1 yr and in those between 5 & 14. cause: Staphylococcus aureus and haemophilus influenzae for young kids
OSTEOMYELITIS - fyi collection of pus under the periosteum of the bone w/c result in necrosis of part of bone. TX: IV antibiotics are prescribed for a 4to 6 wk period.
EPIGLOTITIS swelling of the tissue above the vocal cords w/c results in narrowing of the airway inlet w/ possibility of total obstruction. Caused by H. influenzae type B. LIFE THREATENING MED EMERGENCY.
EPIGLOTITIS - S/S child insists on sitting up, leans forward w mouth open and drools saliva bec of difficulty swallowing. Appears wide eyed, anxious and restless. May emit froglike croaking sound on inspiraton.
JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS most common arthritic condition. Systematic inflammatory disease that involves the joints, connective tissues and viscera & differes from adult rheumatoid arthritis. 3 onsets: systemic (or acute febrile), polyarticular and pauciarticular.
JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - SYSTEMIC intermittent fever above 39.5 (103 F) persisting for over 10 days, nonpruritic macular rash, abd pain, elevated eythrocyte SED rate (ESR), C reactive protein in lab test and enlarged liver & spleen
JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - PAUCIARTICULAR limited to four or fewer joints, generally the larger ones such as the hips, knees, ankles and elbows.
JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - POLYARTICULAR can involve to five or more joints often small joints of the hands and feet, w/c become swollen, warm and tender.
MILWAUKEE BRACE tx for scoliosis. Curves between 20 to 40 degrees. It exerts pressure on the chin, pelvis and convex (arched) side of the spine. It is worn approx 23 hrs a day over a T shirt to protect skin.
Created by: jekjes
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