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HY Neuro Part 1

Day 12

QuestionAnswer
What is the MC brain tumor? Metastases
What are the 3 MC primary brain tumors in adults? Glioblastoma multiforme, Meningioma, and Schwannoma
What are the 3 MC primary brain tumors in children? Astrocytoma, Medulloblastoma, and Ependymoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: pseudopalisading necrosis Glioblastoma multiforme
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: polycythemia Hemangioblastoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Neurofibromatosis type II Schwannoma (to remember which neurofibromatosis syndrome, just think of wearing II earrings b/c you have II ears)
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: a/w von Hippel-Lindau syndrome Hemangioblastoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: foamy cells, high vascularity Hemangioblastoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Prolactinemia--> galactorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulation Prolactinoma (pituitary adenoma)
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Psammoma bodies Meningioma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Fried egg appearance Oligodendroglioma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Perivascular pseudorosettes Ependymoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Bitemporal hemianopia Pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma (in kids)
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: worst prognosis of any primary brain tumor Glioblastoma multiforme
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Child with hydrocephalus Ependymoma and medulloblastoma
Which primary brain tumor fits the following description?: Homer-Wright pseudorosettes Medulloblastoma
Which seizure is this: localized and specific area of brain? Partial
Which seizure is this: no alteration of consciousness? Simple
Which seizure is this: Altered consciousness? Complex
Which seizure is this: affects entire brain? Generalized
What are the MCC of seizures in children? Genetic, infection (febrile), trauma, congenital, and metabolic
What is the classic "Charcot's triad" seen in MS? Scanning speech, intention tremor, and nystagmus
Name that headache!: aura, nausea and vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia, lasts 24-48 hours Migraine
Having an aura with a migraine prevents patients from taking what popular prescription drugs? OCPs
Name that headache!: unilateral, can last 30min to several hours, relieved with oxygen administration, may have Horner's-type symptoms (ptosis, miosis), and rhinorrhea on ipsilateral side Cluster headaches
Name that headache!: bilateral steady pain lasting more than 30min, not aggravated by light or noise, no aura Tension headache
What allele is assoc'd with Alzheimer's disease? APP on chromosome 21= early onset; Apo E4 allele on chromo 19= late onset (Apo E2 on chromo 19 is protective against Alzheimer's)
Why is Alzheimer's so common in patients with Down syndrome? B/c the APP gene is located on chromosome 21, and Down patients have 3 copies of this chromosome.
A woman presents with headache, visual disturbance, and amenorrhea. What is the diagnosis? Pituitary adenoma
A 43 yo man presents with symptoms of dizziness and tinnitus. CT shows enlarged internal acoustic meatus. What is the diagnosis? Acoustic Schwannoma
A child exhibits proximal m weakness and enlarged calves. What is the disease, and how is it inherited? DMD; X-linked (X-linked diseases: Fabry's Tale: Duchenne the Muscular HUNTER BRUTally Lysed the Albino Gopher without being aWAre it was a FRAGILE Hemophiliac)
A 25yo female presents with sudden uniocular vision loss and slightly slurred speech. She has a history of weakness and paresthesias that have resolved. What is the diagnosis? Multiple Sclerosis
A 10yo child spaces out in class (stops talking mid-sentence) and then continues as if nothing had happened. During the spells, there is slight quivering of lips. What is the diagnosis? Absence seizure
A patient presents with vertigo + tinnitus + hearing loss. What is the diagnosis? Meniere's disease
Which endogenous agonist matches the following opioid receptor?: dynorphin Kappa
Which endogenous agonist matches the following opioid receptor?: morphine Mu
Which endogenous agonist matches the following opioid receptor?: enkephalin Delta
Which medication fits the following description?: opioid cough suppressant Dextromethorphan
Which medication fits the following description?: opioid used in the treatment of diarrhea Loperamide and diphenoxylate
Which medication fits the following description?: opioid commonly used in the treatment of acute heart failure Morphine (LMNOP: Loop diuretics like furosemide, Morphine, Nitrates, Oxygen, Pressors/Positioning)
Which medication fits the following description?: opioid receptor antagonist Naloxone, naltrexone
Which medication fits the following description?: non-addictive weak opioid agonist Tramadol
Which medication fits the following description?: partial opioid agonist that causes less respiratory depression Butorphanol
What 5 drug classes are used to treat glaucoma? Alpha agonists, beta blockers, diuretics (mannitol, acetazolamide), cholinomimetics, and prostaglandins (-prost drugs)
What drugs are known for causing Steven's Johnson syndrome? Sulfa drugs, seizure drugs, -cillins, and allopurinol
How is barbiturate overdose managed? Symptomatically
How is benzo overdose managed? Flumazenil
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: IV a/w hallucinations and bad dreams Ketamine
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: inhaled, SE nephrotoxic Methoxyflurane (methoxy is nephrotoxy! yeah baby!)
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: IV , MC drug used for endoscopy Midazolam (+ an opioid like fentanyl)
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: inhaled, SE convulsions/seizures Enflurane
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: inhaled, SE hepatotoxic Halothane
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: IV, used for rapid anesthesia induction and short procedures Propofol
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: inhaled, used for rapid anesthesia nitric oxide
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: IV, decreases cerebral blood flow (important in brain surgery) BARBIturates like thiopental (BARBIe is dumb b/c she has decreased cerebral blood flow)
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: IV, does not induce histamine release like morphine Fentanyl
Which anesthetic fits the following description?: high triglyceride content increases risk of pancreatitis with long-term use Propofol
What agents are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease? Bromocriptine, Amantadine, L-Dopa + carbidopa, Selegiline, Antimuscarinics (Benztropine)= BALSA
What side effects are common to most all of the anti-epileptics? Diplopia, sedation, ataxia, nystagmus, and dizziness
What are the toxic SE of phenytoin? Hirsuitism, gingival hyperplasia, fetal hydantoin syndrome, drug-induced lupus, SJS, and CYP-450 induction
What is the mechanism of action of dantrolene? Blocks Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is the mechanism of action of local anesthetics? Block Na channels
Which n fibers are blocked first with local anesthesia? Small myelinated fibers (small myelinated first-> small unmyelinated-> large myelinated-> large unmyelinated last)
What drug can be used to reverse the neuromuscular blockade? Neostigmine is the prototype drug
What is the mechanism of action of the drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease? Memantine is an NMDA receptor ANTAGonist (helps prevent excitotoxicity; mediated by Ca) and donezepil, galantamine, and rivastigmine are all AChE inhibitors (problem with AD is that they don't have enough ACh).
What is the mechanism of action of sumatriptan? Serotonin 1B/1D receptor agonist that causes vasoconstriction (headaches are caused by vasodilation; think of blood filling up spaces in the brain causing pressure and pain)
For what populations is sumatriptan contraindicated? Pregnant women, people with CAD, and people with Prinzmetal's angina
Created by: sarah3148