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Basic Neuro Part 1

Day 11

QuestionAnswer
Receptor: sends a continuous electrical signal throughout a continuous stimulus Slowly adapting
Receptor: sends an electrical signal only at the beginning and end of a continuous stimulus Rapidly adapting
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: pricking pain (fast, myelinated) A-delta free n endings
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: Burning or dull pain and itch C free n endings
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: receptor for cold sensation cold nociceptor, a type of A-delta free n ending
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: receptor for warm sensatoin warm thermoreceptor, a type of C free n ending
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: vibration and pressure Pacinian corpuscles (rapidly adapting, deep layers/dermis)
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: dynamic/changing light, discriminatory touch Meissner's corpuscles (rapidly adapting, superficial layers)
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: static/unchanging light touch Merkel's disks (slowly adapting, superficial layers)
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: proprioception information- m length monitoring Muscle spindle
What sensory receptor communicates with the following information?: proprioception information- m tension monitoring Golgi tendon organ
What sensory receptor matches the following description?: resenmbles an onion in cross-section Pacinian corpuscle
What sensory receptor matches the following description?: robust spindle-shaped structures found particularly on the soles of the feet Raffini endings (slowly adapting, deep layers of dermis)
What sensory receptor matches the following description?: found only in areas of skin without hair (fingertips, lips, eyelids, etc.) Meissner's corpuscles
What sensory receptor matches the following description?: simplest sensory receptor thought to be pain receptor or thermoreceptors Free n endings
What sensory receptor matches the following description?: touch receptor that is tough to distinguish from melanocytes Merkel cells
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: looks like fried eggs under histo staining oligodendroglia
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: form multinucleated giant cells in the CNS when infected with HIV microglia
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: myelinates multiple CNS axons Oligodendroglia
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: myelinates one PNS axon Schwann cells (Schwann cells Stay Single)
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: damaged in Guillain-Barre Schwann cells
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: damaged in MS Oligodendroglia
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: macrophages of the CNS Microglia
Which nervous system cell matches the following description?: cells of the BBB Astrocytes
Name the 4 major dopaminergic pathways. 1. Mesocortical path (ventral tegmental of midbrain->cortex) 2. Mesolimbic path (ventral teg->limbic system) 3. Nigrostriatal path (substantia nigra/pars compacta->striatum/caudate+putamen) 4. Tuberoinfundibular path (arcuate nuc of hypothal->pituitary
What is the result of blocking the mesocortical pathway? Increase in negative symptoms of psychosis (e.g., social withdrawal and depression)
What is the result of blocking the mesolimbic pathway? Relief of psychosis (positive symptoms); this is the pathway targeted by neuroleptics
What is the result of blocking the nigrostriatal pathway? Parkinson's symptoms (stimulation would result in extrpyramidal side effects)
What is the result of blocking the tuberoinfundibular pathway? Increase in release of prolactin from pituitary--> amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and galactorrhea
What disorder is thought to arise from reduced NE activity? Depression
What disorder is thought to arise from increased NE activity? Anxiety and mania
What disease is assoc'd with the degeneration of the basal nucleus of Meynert and less CNS acetylcholine? Alzheimer's disease
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: considered the master clock for most of our circadian rhythms suprachiasmatic nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: regulates the parasympathetic NS anterior and preoptic nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: destruction results in hyperthermia anterior and peroptic nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: regulates the sympathetic nervous system posterior and lateral nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH) to regulate water balance supraoptic nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: receives input from the retina suprachiasmatic nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: savage behavior and obesity result from stimulation dorsal medial nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: savage behavior and obesity result from destruction ventromedial nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: stimulating--> eating; destruction--> starvation lateral nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: regulates teh release of gonadotropic hormones (e.g., LH and FSH) pre-optic nucleus
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: responsible for sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in hot temperatures anterior and preoptic nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: responsible for shivering and decreased cutaneous blood flow in the cold posterior and lateral nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: destruction results in neurogenic diabetes insipidus supraoptic
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: destruction results in inability to stay warm posterior and lateral nuclei
Which nucleus of the hypothalamus fits the following description?: releases hormones affecting the anterior pituitary Arcuate nucleus (A for Arcuate and Anterior)
Describe the general flow of information thru the cerebellum. Inputs (mossy and climbing fibers)--> cerebellar cortex--> Purkinje fiber-->deep nuclei of cerebellum--> output targets
A lesion on the L side of the cerebellar hemisphere would cause a motor control deficit on which side of the body? On the L (deficit is ipsilateral to lesion)
Name 4 neuro abnormalities that occur due to damage to the spinocerebellum (vermis and paravermis). 1. Postural instability 2. Slurred/slowing of speech 3. Hypotonia 4. Pendular knee jerk reflexes
What symptoms are seen in anterior lobe (anterior vermis) syndrome? Ataxia/dystaxia of legs leading to a broad-based staggering gait
What is the most common cause of anterior lobe (anterior vermis) syndrome? Chronic alcohol abuse (causes thiamine deficiency which leads to degernation of the cerebellar cortex starting with the anterior lobe)
Name 4 neuro deficits that would be seen with damage to the cerebrocerebellum (lateral hemisphere). 1. Uncoordinated voluntary movements 2. Trouble initiating and stopping movements 3. Dysmetria (can't control the power, distance, and speed of a movement) 4. Intention tremor
Name 3 tests that we use to test cerebellar function. 1. Hand flipping on thighs 2. Finger to nose 3. Looking for tremor
Hey kids! It's time for NAME THAT TREMOR!: a/w Parkinson's disease, disappears with voluntary movement Resting tremor (also known as pill rolling tremor)
Hey kids! It's time for NAME THAT TREMOR!: family history of tremor, occurs with movement and at rest, patients tend to self medicate with alcohol Essential tremor (also known as familial tremor)
Hey kids! It's time for NAME THAT TREMOR!: a/w cerebellar damage, appears only with voluntary movement Intention tremor
What are medical treatment options for essential (familial) tremor? Beta blocker (propanolol), primidone (anticonvulsant), clonazepam. Patients tend to self-medicate with alcohol.
What neuro deficits might be seen with damage tot he vestibulocerebellum (vermis and flocculonodular)? disequilibrium (can't maintain balance) and abnormal eye movements (cerebellar nystagmus that is more pronounced when pt looks toward side of lesion)
What is the most common cause of damage to the flocculonodular lobe? Meduloblastoma in childhood
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: indirect pathway inhibitor
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: direct pathway stimulator
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: globus pallidus externa stimulator
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: subthalamic nucleus inhibitor
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: substantia nigra pars reticulata inhibitor
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: substantia nigra pars compacta stimulator
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: thalamus stimulator
Is the following component of the basal ganglia a stimulator of movement or an inhibitor of movement?: globus pallidus interna inhibitor of movement
Which part of the basal ganglia can be either surgically lesioned or hyperstimulated to treat Parkinson's? Subthalamic nucleus
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: contralateral hemiballismus Subthalamic
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: eyes look toward the side of the lesion Frontal eye fields
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: eyes look away from teh side of the lesion PPRF
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: paralysis of upward gaze Superior colliculi (Parinaud's syndrome)
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: hemispatial neglect syndrome non-dominant (usually R) parietal lobe
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: coma REticular activating system
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: poor repetition Arcuate fasiculus (conduction aphasia)
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: poor comprehension Wernicke's
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: poor vocal expression Broca's
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: resting tremor Substantia nigra (pars compacta)
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: intention tremor Cerebellar hemisphere
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior Amygdala (bilateral lesion)
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: personality changes Frontal cortex
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: Dysarthria Cerebellar vermis
A lesion to which area of the brain is responsible for which of the following clinical scenarios?: agraphia and acalculia Dominant (usually L) parietal lobe
A patient with a cortical lesion is unaware of his neurologic deficiency. Where is the lesion? Non-dominant parietal lobe (usually R)
Inability to express emotion or inflection in speech Non-dominant Broca's aphasia
Inability to comprehend emotion or infection in speech Non-dominant Wernicke's aphasia
What is the MC site of hypertensive hemorrhage? basal ganglia and thalamus
Patient with h/o HTN develops sudden, wild flailing of his L arm and L leg. What caused this? Hemiballismus secondary to a lacunar stroke (seen in pts w/ h/o HTN)
Person presents with seizures and convulsions related to synthesis of a CNS NT that has actions analagous to those produced by somatostatin in the gut. What vitamin deficiency does this patient have? vitamin B6 (B6 is needed to synthesize GABA, an inhibitory NT of the CNS)
Created by: sarah3148