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Microbiology Mrs. B

Micro final questions

Define Etiology? the study of causes and origins of a disease.(tracks #'s) cause of....
Define Incidence? the number of NEW cases contracted within a set population, during a specific period of time (drop indicate a reduction in the spread of disease)
Define Prevalence? the TOTAL Number of people infected within the population at any time
Morbidity Rate? the number of individuals affected by a rate disease during a set period in relation to the total population. (5.1- per 100,000)
Mortality rate? the Number of Deaths due to disease in a population during a specific period in relation to the total population
Define Endemic? Present continually in the population of a particular geographic area: a" Disease" ie...influenza, chickenpox, Mumps in the US
Define Epidemic? Arises when a disease suddenly has a higher-than-normal incidence in a population. (ABNORMAL RISE of a disease in a country) ex. St.Louis encephalitis was a epidemic in 1975
Define Pandemic? Occurs when an Epidemic Spreads World wide. ex. 1918-swine flu - Cholera is in its 7th pandemic
Define Sporadic? Occurs in a RANDOM and Unpredictable manner. ex. Eastern equine encephalitis sporadic in the Americans.
What is a epidemic that arises from contact with contaminated substances? Common Source Out break(eg. Food Poisoning)
What is it called when there is horizontal transmission/ from person to person? Propagated Epidemic( e.g. Common Cold, Flu )
Sites where pathogens can persist and maintain their ability to infect? Infection Reservoirs
A person who harbors an infection? Host Resevoir
A individual who harbor an infectious agent without having any observable clinical signs or symptoms? a Carrier
Define Zoonotic/Zoonoses? a disease from an animal transfered to a human; diseases that can be transmitted under natural conditions to humans from other vertebrate animals.
Examples of Non-Living Host/Infection Reservoirs: Soil Clostridium tetani and Clostridium Botulinum( Spores, Soil) Water Vibrio cholerae (Giardia)
Microbe Spread- Portals of Entry: Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, mammary glands, urethra, vagina, anus, placenta, broken skin, (Immuuno compromised)
Microbe Spread- Portals of Exit: Eyes(tears), Ears (wax), Nose (secretions), Mouth (sputum,saliva), Broken Skin (blood), In Females: mammary glands (milk,secretions) Vagina (secretions, blood). In Men: Seminal Vesicle (semen and lube secretions), Urethra (urine), Anus (feces)
Whats the number one portal of exit for microbes to be spread? Anus (feces)
What is the definition of a Fomite? Inadmite object/ non-living, ie.. door knobs, handles, toilet seats, etc...
What are the modes of disease transmission? Contact, vehicles, Vectors,(Direct contact)Indirect contact, and droplets.
What is the difference between Direct/Indirect and droplet disease transmission? direct-fecal-oral< if you use the bathroom, and don't wash your hands, and then prepare my food. Indirect-(by fomites) if you use the bathroom, don't wash your hands and then touch the door knobs or bar soap and I touch one of those things.
What is droplet transmission? when someone sneezes, coughs, or talks with in 3 ft of you, and you catch their disease.
Define a transmission of a disease by a "Vehicle"? a vehicle is a non-living carrier of an infectious agent from its reservoir to a susceptible host.Ex. a dog poops in the water and your swimming with it, and happen to swallow water near or by where the animal that's infected pooped.
Water-borne transmission? Indirect-fecal oral transmission:ex.animal poops in water and you are in the water and swallow some of the water. Enteroviruses, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cholera.
Define/describe Airborne transmission? Airborne transmission, it travels more than 3ft(1mm) through the air. Airplanes/buildings with poor ventalation, dust particles (harbor pathogens, staphylocci and streptococci can survive for several months in dust. Aerosal-bioterrosim.
Define a Vector? Living organisms that transmit diseases to humans.Most Vectors are Arthropods, ticks, flies, fleas, lice and Mosquitoes
What are the two types of Vector transmission? Mechanical vector- along for the ride(on insect bodies) ex.E.coli diarrhea,salmonellosis, trachoma. Biological vector- Lives inside it. (Plaque, malaria, yellow fever, ticks etc...)
What is Herd Immunity? 90% of population is immune while 10% is not.
Define CDC? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: responsible for the control and prevention of infectious diseases and other preventable conditions.
What does WHO stand for and what do they do? World Health Organization, (WHO) in an international agency that coordinates and sets up programs to improve health in more than 100 member countries.
Whats the definition for a Notifiable disease? List of infectious diseases that are potentially harmful to the public's health and must be reported by physicians.
What is a infection that is acquired in a hospital or other medical facility? NoSocomial Infection
What synthesize and release large numbers of antibodies? Plasma Cells
What provides non-specific heriditary defense and protect against Pathogens with out prior exposure? Innate Immunity
What is it called when you refer to a set of 20 blood proteins? Compliment
What 5 events take place in Phagocytosis? 1. Chemical/Chemotaxis 2. Adherence 3.Ingestion 4. Digestion 5.Exocytosis
Most common portal of Entry? Mucus Membranes
Herd immunity is when 90% of population is _ while 10% of population is_ to infection? Immune, Susceptible
Immunity that is mediated by antibodies is? Humoral
Innate immune system is? You are born with it, it's your first line of defense (Army) Non-specific-but works the same on the organisms
What is Acquired or Adaptive immune system? you have to work on it, it's your Second line of defense. Specific to type of species of organisms.
Name the cellular defenses- Granulocytes? Basophils/Mast cells, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Dendritic cells
Cellular defenses- Agranulocytes? Monocytes, lymphocytes
What are leukocytes? white blood cells
What is a NK cell (natural killer cell)? it secretes cytotoxic proteins (perforin) that trigger the death of infected cells
Natural killer cells most important immune function? Preventing cancer
What mechanisms are involved in prevention of digestion with in a phagolysosome? Produces capsule that's not vulnerable to defensin and digestive enzymes(plague) Acid Fast bacteria do not fuse with lysosomes.(ie..lepracy Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Waxy Capsule, Releases toxins into cytoplasm of phagocyte
Whats important in killing cells infected by Rickettsia and Chlamydia bacteria and tumor cells? Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
Name 4 ways the body reacts to tissue damage from microbial infection? Signs and Symptoms: 1. increase in temp 2. redness 3.swelling 4. pain at infected or injured site
Define Inflammation? The body's defensive response to tissue damage from microbial infection.
Define Calor? an increase in temperature
Define rubor? Redness
Define Tumor? Swelling
Define Dolor? Pain at infected or injured site
Fever caused by infection: Our own innate immune system
Pathogens? release exotoxins and endotoxins (exogenous pyrogens)
Macrophages? release a cytokine called interleukin-1(endogenous pyrogen)where it causes neurons in the hypothalamus to secret prostaglandins. The prostaglandins reset the hypothalamus thermostat at a higher temp causing fever.
Innate immune defense of a fever? raises body temp, at higher temp some microbial enzymes or toxins may be inactivated, heighten the level of immune responses by increasing the rate of chemical reactions in the body. phagocytosis is enhanced, production of antiviral interferons.
What does the interferon protein do? Its synthesized and released( with a fever we produce more of this)
What is the system that has the key role in host defense; produced by the liver? Complement System
Complement system refers to? a set of 20 or more large regulatory proteins that play a key role in host defense. (makes immune system work better)
General functions of Complement system are: 1. Enhance Phagocytosis 2. Lyse Pathogens directly 3.Generate peptide fragments that regulate inflammation and immune responses 4.Works as a cascade; a set of reactions that amplify some effect.
a summary of the bodys nonspecific defenses: Physical barriers: prevent approach and deny access to pathogens. Phagocytes: remove debris and pathogens. Extra cellular killing destroys abnormal cells.
A summary of the bodys non-specific defenses: Inflammatory Response(multiple effects) Fever (mobilizes defenses, accelerate repairs, inhibits pathogens, Interferons,(increase resistance of cells to infection, slows the spread of disease) Complement system: (attacks and breaks down cell walls)
Created by: monicah74