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General Science


Maritime polar (mp) air masses form over oceans of arctic regions
SUPER CELL the most powerful type of thunderstorm
Freezing Nuclei microscopic particles which fall below freezing
Warm Front When warm air is advancing flattens colder air beneath it
Cold Front Boundary when mass of cold air mass into territory covered by mass of warmer air
SUPER BOLT most powerful type of lightning
Stationary Front when two air masses meet and become stationary, neither displacing the other/ stalemate
Continental tropical (ct) air mass form over desert or tropical land area
Thermal Energy Heat which comes from the sun
Front Boundary between two air masses
Condensation Gas molecule which can return to liquid state
Frontal Lows Whirlpool of low pressure that may form along stationary front
TRIESTE 1st to explore Challenger Deep
Sublimation Process when molecule changes into ice crystal
GUYOTS unusual flat-topped seamounts that are found alongside conventional seamounts
Shelf Break fairly sharp drop-off
oceanic deep Any area of sea exceeds 6000 meters in depth
Trenches Huge, muddy valleys that cut through portions of the abyssal plains
Seamounts Underwater volcanic mountains that rise more than 900 m
SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)device that allows oceanographers to breathe underwater
Submersibles small research submarine which allows oceanographers to visit regions of sea too deep for scuba
Oceanographic Buoy Unmanned floating observation station that automatically takes and transmits data to oceanographers
Oceanographic research ship ship equipped to provide a mobile research laboratory and working platform for oceanographers
Submarine canyons Large underwater canyon that cuts through continental shelf or continental slope
Continental Shelf Sandy, gently, sloping underwater plain bordering the coast of a continent
Continental Rise The gently sloping region at the base of continental slopes that stretches away 400's of miles toward abyssal plain
Continental Slope Region at edge of continental shelf where the ocean floor slopes fairly steeply downward away from the continent
Ocean Currents Large streams of ocean water that flows as unit at or below surface created by winds or differences in density
Thermocline boundary is where cold, deep water meets sun-warmed water
Salinity Measure of quantity of dissolved solids in a mixture such as seawater
Meteorologists Scientists who study weather
Super Computers Powerful computers capable of rapidly performing complex calculations
Cirrostratus Thin,translucent clouds spread like sheet, are found in upper atmosphere
Weather Forecasts Predictions what the weather would be like in the future
Dew Point Temperature which water vapor condenses and varies on pressure and humidity of air
Evaporation Process which molecule of liquid becomes gas
CLIMATE Year-round weather typical of certain place
Water Vapor Water in form of gas
Precipitation Water or ice falling to earth
Sleet Ice pellets form raindrops fall cold air
Hail Destructive form of precipitation layered balls of ice
Updraft Current of rising air
Cell Updraft System
Dew Point Temperature which water vapor in air begins to condense, and it varies depending on the pressure and humidity of air
Air-mass Weather Same weather conditions prevail form day to next
Arctic Air mass which bring cold weather to south and are colder and drier than continental
Maritime Tropical (mT) Air masses form over oceans of tropics accompanied by thunderstorms
Photochemical Smog Brown haze results from molecules released by cars,buses,factories,etc.
Air Mass Body of air with temperature,humidity, and pressure
Smog Combination of smoke and fog
Precipitation Fog Warm rain falling into cool air
Upslope Fog Formed by Moist winds blowing gentle slope
Advection Fog Forms over ocean water commonly called sea fog
Dew Water vapor condenses below dew point
Condensation Nuclei Microscopic particles which are the center(nucleus) of water drops
Three Factors Causing Weather 1.Thermal energy 2.Heat distribution 3.Water vapor
RADIATION FOG Occurs on clear nights "autumn"
Fog Stratus cloud formed at surface of earth
Cirro cumulus Puffs of cotton in upper troposphere
Stratocumulus Heavy layer of gray clouds "Puffy"
Lenticular clouds Form over mountains in pocket of low pressure-where air was forced over mountain begins to descend
weather State of atmosphere at time and place
Cirrus Clouds float near top of atmosphere
Stratus Heavy clouds close to ground, water vapor forms horizontally
Heat of Condensation Heat released when gas becomes liquid
Frost point temperature where frost forms
Nimbostratus Stratus rain clouds
Cumulus Clouds resemble piles of cotton
Nimbus Clouds produces precipitation
Uneven Distribution of Heat 1.Earth's 23.5% tilt of hemisphere 2.Half of earth always in shadow 3.During day land heats faster than water and cools faster at night
Barometer Measures air pressure
hydrometer measures relative humidity
Relative Humidity Percentage of amount of moisture in air compared to maximum amount hold under same conditions
anemometer measures wind speed
Wind Vane measures direction of wind
Oceanography Study of the seas and oceans
Hydrostatic Pressure Water pressure
Heat of Vaporization Energy gained by molecules and can be measured by calories per gram(540 calories per gram)
Storm Surge Combination of low-pressure bulge, wind- pushed water levels, and waves produce elevated water levels
Isotherms Line on weather map connecting places of equal temperature
RADAR (Radio detection and ranging) uses radio waves to detect objects and measure distance
Sounding Rockets Small,inexpensive rockets launch small payloads to altitude of few dozen miles
Station Model Conditions at each weather are presented in grouping of numbers and symbols
Radiosonds Instruments measure and transmit meteorological data form balloons to weather stations below
Rain Bands Lines of thunderstorms at lower altitudes range form 50 to 300 miles long
Eye Wall Cylinder of thick whirling clouds and rain surround eye of hurricane
EYE center of hurricane region of low pressure few miles wide, which storm rotates(counterclockwise=N hemisphere, clockwise=S hemisphere
Steps of Hurricane 1.Tropical disturbance 2.Tropical depression 3.Tropical storm 4.Hurricane
Return Stroke Brilliant stream of electricity after the stepped leader and positive stream meet a few hundred feet above the ground
Stepped Leader Stream of electrons going down to the ground
Squall Lines Thunderstorms occur in small groups or in long lines
DOWN BURSTS Blasts of cool wind blow downward
THUNDER Shock wave air lightning expands
Single-cell Thunderstorm One cell or updraft system
Rain Gauge Open cylindrical glass jar with ruler on side
Lightning Discharge of static electricity
Meteorology The study of weather and atmospheric conditions
Frost point Temperature where frost forms
Occluded fronts Type of front occurs when cold air mass slides under warm air mass and lifts it off ground
Challenger Deep Deepest known point of sea 10,911= nearly 7 miles
Tornado Narrow funnel of powerful,rapidly, whirling winds
Rosette Cluster of insulated bottles that are opened and closed at predetermined depths as the device is lowered into the water
Piston Corer device used to bring back narrow columns or cores of floor sediments as much as 25 meters(80)ft long
abyssal plain broad,flat plains of the deep,ocean floor
Oceanic ridges series of undersea mountain ranges that encircles the earth
Mid-Atlantic Ridge oceanic ridge that extends down the middle of the Atlantic oceans
ocean basins The deep depressions in earth's surface that contain the oceans
Neap tides Weaker-than-normal tides
Spring tides tide that is higher than normal at high tide and is lower than normal at low tide, occurs at new moon and full moon
Tides most regular and predictable movements of water in oceans
Tsunamis gigantic waves formed by underwater earthquake, underwater volcano, or an undersea landslide
Rip Currents dangerous surface currents which carry large volumes of water back to the sea through channels between incoming breakers
longshore current current of water,produced by waves, that flows parallel to a beach
Undertow current which may wash sand from beneath feet of swimmers
Waves Rhythmic back-and-forth motions of water that transfer energy through the water
Ocean swells Gently,rolling waves that may appear even during calm weather
Breaker Wave in process of toppling over as it nears shore
Surf Pounding mass of foaming water produced when a wave breaks
Counter current ocean current that flows in opposite direction of a surface current, either beside it or beneath it
Upwelling mass of cool, deep water that comes to the surface as result of prevailing land breeze blows surface water away from a coast
Turbidity Current Type of density current formed when seawater mixes with silt or mud and flows down undersea slopes
Density Current Subsurface current caused by density differences
Peru Current Cold current flows northward along western(Pacific)coast of South America
Gulf Stream Large,warm surface current that flows northeast across the Atlantic
Icebergs Huge chunks of ice broken off from glaciers
Ice shelf outer edge of a glacier floating over the surface of the ocean
Glacier Thick sheet of ice on land that flows under its own weight
Sea ice Ice that forms when seawater freezes
Sodium Chloride Ordinary table salt
Isobars Curved lines of equal pressure
Weather satellite automated package of instruments and sensors that orbits the earth, records, and analyzes weather conditions below and transmits data to meteorologists
Knot nautical mile per hour;equal to 11/7 mph
Hurricanes giant ,whirling storms accompanied by destructive winds of 74 to 100 mph torrential rains and high waves and tides
Dust devil Relatively, harmless cousin of tornado, can pick up a small child or dog and can knock over a adult, but not very strong
Waterspout type of tornado forms over water
Development of thunderstorm 1.updraft stage 2.cumulus stage 3.mature stage 4.dissipating stage
snowflakes clump of ice crystals that falls as snow
Freezing rain Dangerous type of precipitation that freezes when it hits the ground
Drizzle mist
Water Cycle movement of water from sea into air and back again into the sea
Continental Tropical(CT) dry air mass forms over cold land areas such as Northern Canada or Alaska, bringing cold,dry weather
Cumulonimbus Thunderclouds
Created by: blinx34212