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NuttingScience 1- 10

Anatomy and Physiology

QuestionAnswer
Define the term Anatomy? Give example. Anatomy is the study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition, amd perhaps even coloration. What a Organ or body part look like . What a heart or lungs look like.
Define the term Physiology? Give example. Is the study of how the body functions.
Define the term PathophysiologyGive example.? Is the study of disorders of function. Why a person might be a diabetic, anemic. ect.
Name the levels of the body from simplest to most complesx, and explain each. 1. Chemical Level. 2.Cellular Level. 3.Tissue Level. 4. Organ Level. 5.Organ System level. 6. Organism Leve.
Define the term Metabolism. Give example. Metabolism is a collective noun; it is all of the chmemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body.
Define the term Metabolic rate. Give example. Metabolic rate is most often used to mean the speed at which the body produces energy and heat.
Define the term Homeostasis. And use examples to explain. A person who is in good health. It reflects the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable metabolism and to function normally despite many constant changes.
Describe how a Negative Feedback Mechanism works.And how a positive feedback mechanism differs. A Negative feedback mechanism is a control system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there i a need for the response.
Describe the anatomic position. The body is erect and facing forward, the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Explain how and why the abdomen is divided into smaller areas. The abdomen is divided into smaller areas inorder to know more preccisely where a paticular problem is.
Anatomy Anatomy is the study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition, amd perhaps even coloration.
Cell Cells are the smallest living units of structure and function.
Homeostasis The state in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively stable by responding appropriately to changes
Inorganic chemicals Inorganic chemicals are usually simple molecules made of one or two emements other than carbon
Meninges (me-NIN-jeez) The connective tissue membranes that line the dorsal cavity and cover the brain and spinal cord
Metabolism Metabolism is a collective noun; it is all of the chmemical reactions and physical processes that take place within the body.
Organ An organ is a group of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish specific functions.
Organ System An organ system is group os organs that all contribute to a paticular function.
Organic chemicals Organic chemicals are often very complex and always contain the elements carbon and hydrogen. The catagory of organic chemicals are carbohydrates, fatxs, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Pathophysiology Pathophysiology is the study of disorders of functioning.
Pericardial membranes The 3 membrans that enclose the heart, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and two serous layers.
Physiology Physiology is the study of how the body functions.
Plane A plane is an imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body or an organ.
Pleural membranes The Serous membranes of the thoracic cavity.
Positive feedback A control system that requires an external event to stop or reverse the stimulus; mahy become a self-perpetuating cycle that causes harm.
Tissue Tissue is a group of cells with structure and function.
Diagnosis Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of anything.
Disease A condition marked by subjective complaints, aspecific history, and clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory or radiographic findings.
Magneticesonance imaging A diagnostic imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and a computer to integrate the images of internal organs.
Positron emission tomography An imaging technique that depicts rate of metabolism or blood flow in organs or tissues.
How do the concepts between desease and illness differ? A disease is usually tangible or measurable. Wheareas illness is highly individual and personal.
What are the levels of structural organization of the human body, depicted from the simplest chemical to the most complex organism. 1. Chemical Level. 2.Cellular Level. 3.Tissue Level. 4. Organ Level. 5.Organ System level. 6. Organism Leve.
Name the four groups of tissues. Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve.
What is the Integumentary Organ System? It is the barrier to pathogens and chemicals. Prevents water loss. Ex. Skin, subcutaneous tissue.
What is the Skeletal Organ System? Supports the body. Protects internal organs and red bone marrow. Provides a framework to be moved by muscles. Provides a storage site for excess Calcium. Ex.Bones and ligaments.
What is the Muscular Organ System? Moves the skeleton and produces heat. Ex. Muscles and tendons.
What is the Nervous Organ System? Interprets sensory information. Regulates body functions such as movement by means of electrochemical impulses. Ex. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, eyes, ears.
What is the Endocrine Organ System? Regulates body functions such as growth and reproduction by means of hormones. Regulates day to day metabolism by means of hormones. Ex. Thyroid gland, pituitary gland, ovaries or testes, pancreas.
What is the Circulatory Organ System? Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removes waste products. Ex. Heart, blood, arteries and veins.
What is the Lymphatic Organ System? Returns tissue fluid to the blood. Destroys pathogens that enter the body and provides immunity. Ex. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus gland.
What is the Respiratory Organ System? Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood. Ex. Lungs, trachea, larynx, diaphragm.
What is the Digestive Organ System? Changes food to simple chemicals that can be absorbed and used by the body. Ex. Stomach, colon, liver, pancreas.
Urinary Organ System? Removes waste products from the blood. Regulates volume and pH of blood and tissue fluid. Ex. Kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra.
What is the Reproductive Organ System? Produces eggs or sperm. In women provides a site for the developing embryo-fetus. Ex. Ovaries, uterus,testes, prostate gland.
Define the term proton. A subatomic particle that has a positive electrical charge; found in the nucleus of an atom.
Define the term Neutron A subatomic particle that has no electrical charge; found in the nucleus of an atom.
Define the term Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative electricle charge; found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.
Describe what happens in synthesis reactions. In a Synthesis Reaction , bonds are formed to join tow or more atoms or molecules to make a new compound. Proteins are synthesized by the bonding of many amino acids, their smaller subunits. Synthesis reactions require energy for the formation of bonds.
Explain the importance of water to ther functioning of the human body. Water is important because it is a solvent , lubricant and that it changes temperature slowly.
State what trace elements are, and name some, with their functions. Trace elements are those that are needed by the body in very small amounts. Such as Calcium which provides skelital strength, is nessary for blood clotting and muscle contraction.
Explain the pH scale. The ph scale extends from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral. > than 7 is alkaline and < 7 are acidic.
Explain how a buffer system limits great changes in pH. By reacting with strong acids or strong bases to transform them into substances that will not drasticly change in pH.
Describe the functions of monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are single sugar compounds. and are the simpelest sugars. Such as Fructose and Galactose which the liver turnes into Glucose which cells then use to conduct cell respiration to produce ATP.
Describe the functions of DNA. (deoxyribonucleic acid) A nucliec acid in the shape of a double helix. Makes up the chromosomes of cells and is the genetic code for hereditary characteristics.
Acid An acid may be defined as a substance that increases the concentration of ions(H+) in water solution.
Amino acid An organic compound that contains an amino, or amine, group(NH2) and carboxyl group(COOH). Twenty different amino acids are the subunit molecules of which human proteins are made.
Atom The unit of matter that is the smallest part of an element.
Base A base is a substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions, which, in the case of water, has the same effect as increasing the concentration of hydroxyl ions (OH-).
Buffer system A pair of chemicals that prevents significant changes in pH of a body fluid
Carbohydrates An organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars, starches and cellulose.
Catalyst A chemical that affects the speed of a chemical reaction, while itself remaining unchanged; enzymes are catalysts.
Cell respiration A cellular process in which the energy of nutrients is released in the form of ATP and heat. Oxygen and carbon and water are produced.
Covalent bond A chemical bond formed by sharing of electrons between atoms.
Dissociation/ionization The separation of an inorganic salt, acid , or base into its ions when dissolved in water.
Element A substance that contains only one type of atom; there are 92 elements that occur in nature
Enzyme A protien that affects the speed of an chemical reaction. Also called an Organic Catalyst
Extracellular fluid Water outside the cells;includes plasma,tissue fluid,lymph, and other fluids.
Intravascular Inside Vessel
Ion An atom or group of atams with an electrical charge.
Ionic bond A chemical bond formed by the loss and gain of electrons between atoms.
Lipids An organinc chimical insoluble in water; includes true fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
Matter Anthing that occupies space;may be solid, liquid or gas. May be living or nonliving.
Molecule A chemical combination of two or more atams.
Nucleic acids An organic chemical that is made of nucleotide subunits. Examples are DNA and RNA
pH and pH scale A symbol of the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The pH scale extends from 0 to 14, with a value 7 being neutral. Values lower than 7 are acidic; values higher than 7 are alkaline(basic)
Protein An organic compound made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Salt A chemical compound that consists of a positive ion other than hydrogen and a negative ion other than hydroxy.
Solvent/solution Water is a solvent, that is, many substances (called solutes) can dissolve in water.
Steroid An organic compound in the lipid group; includes cholesterol and the sex hormones.
Theory A statement that is best explnation of all the avaiable evedence on a paticular process or mechanism. A theory is not a guess.
Trace elements Those elements (minerals)needed in very small amounts for normal functioning.
Acidosis a condition of the blood where the pH of the blood wich falls below 7.35
Atherosclerosis The abnormal accumulation of lipids and other materials in the walls of arteries;narrows the lumen of the vessel and may stimulate abnormal clot formation
Hypoxia Too little oxygen is reaching tissues.
Saturated Filled with
Unsaturated Not filled with
Intracellular fluid (ICF) The water within cells; about 65% of the total body water.
Hypoxemia Too little oxygen in the blood supply.
Calcium (Ca) Provides strength in bones and teeth. Necessary for blood clotting. Necessary for muscle contraction.
Phosphorus (P) Provides strength in bones and teeth. Part of DNA, RNA, and ATP
Iron (Fe) Trace Element. Part of hemoglobin in red blood cells; transports oxygen. Part of myoglobin in muscles; stores oxygen. Part of mitochondria in cells; necessary for celll respiration.
Copper (Cu)Trace Element.Part of mitochondria in cells; necessary for cell respiration. Nessary for hemoglobin synthesis.
Magnesium (Mn)Trace Element. Necessary for energy production and bone formation.
Sodium (Na)Necassary for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. Necessary for proper movement of water(osmosis)among its compartments.
Potassium (K)Necassary for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. Necessary for proper movement of water(osmosis)among its compartments.
Sulfur (S)Part of some proteins such as insulin, keratin, and antibodies
Cobalt (Co)Part of vitamin B12.
Iodine (I)Part of thyroid hormones(thyroxine);essential for normal mental and physical development.
Frontal (coronal)section A plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions.
Sagittal section A plane from front to back separates the body into right and left portions. A midsagittal section creates equal right and left halves.
Cross-section A plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ. A cross-section of the small intestine(which is a tube) would look like a circle with the cavity of the intestine in the center.
Longitudinal section A plane along the long axis of an organ.
Transverse section A horizontal plane separates the body into upper and lower portions.
Antigin To generate an antibody.
Describe the functions of RNA. A nucleic acid that is a single strand of nucleotides; essential for protein synthesis within cells; messenger RNA (tRNA) aligns amino acids in the proper sequence on the mRNA.
Describe the functions of ATP. ATP ( adenosine triphosphate) a specialized nucleotide that traps and releases biologically useful energy.
Describe what happens in decomposition reactions. In a decomposition reaction, bonds are broken, and a large molecule is changed to two or more smaller ones. Some decomposition reactionns release energy.
State the normal pH ranges of body fluids. Gastric juice 1-2pH, Urin is 4.5 pH to almost 8pH. Intestinal secretions are around 8pH.
Describe the functions of disaccharides. Disaccharides are double sugars, made up of two Monosacccharides linked by a covalent bond.Disaccharides in our food are digested into monosaccharides that are then used for energy production.
Describe the functions of oligosaccharides. Oligo means "few". They consist of from 3 to 20 Monosaccharides that are not digestable by humans.They also act as antigins like cell markers. That tells the body the difference between onese own sells and that of outside sources.
Describe the functions of polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are made up of thousands of glucose molecules. Starches are branch chains of glucose. These are also used by cell respiration to produce ATP.
Absorption The taking in of materials by cells or tissues
Active transport The process in which there is movement of molecules against a concentration gradient; that is , from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration. Requires energy.
Aerobic Requiring oxygen.
Apoptosis A process by which a cell brings about its own death; part of the normal cell cycle for unnecessary or damaged cells; also called genetically programmed cell death.
Cell Membrane The membrane made of phospholipids, protein, and cholesterol that forms the outer boundary of a cell and regulates passage of materials into and out of the cell.
Chromosomes Structures made of DNA and protein within the nucleus of a cell. A human cell has 46 chromosomes.
Cytoplasm The cellular material between the nucleus and the cell membrane.
Crtoskeleton The protein microfilaments, including actin, that give shape to a cell, support the cell membrane, and provide for movement.
Diploid number The characteristic or usual number of chromosomes found in the somatic(body) cells of a species.
Gametes The male or gemale reproductive cells,sperm cells or ova, each with the haploid number of chromosomes.
Gene A segment of DNA that is the genetic code for a particular protein and is located in a definite position on a particular chromosome.
Haploid number Half the usual number of chromosomes found in the cells of a species. Characteristic of the gametes of the species (human:23)
Meiosis The process of cell division in which one cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides twice to form four cells, each with the haploid number of chromosomes; formes gametes.
Nucleus 1.The membrane bound part of a cell that contains the hereditary material in chromosomes. 2. The central part of an atom containing protons and neurons.
Organelles An inracellular structure that has a specific function.
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Phagocytosis The process by which a moving cell wngulfs a particle; especially, the ingestion of microorganisms by white blood cells.
Selectively permeable A characteristic of a cell membranes; permits the passage of some materials but not of others.
Benign Not malignant
Carcinogen A substance that increases the risk of developing cancer.
Chemotherapy The use of chemicals to treat disease.
Genetic disease A hereditary disorder that is the result of an incorrect sequence of bases of the DNA in the chromosomes of cells.
Hypertonic Having a greater concentration of dissolved materials than the solution used as a comparison.
Hypotonic Having a lower concentration of dissolved materials than the solution used as a comparison.
Isotonic Having the same concentration of dissolved materials as the solution used as a comparison.
Malignant Tendikng to spread and become worse; used especilly with reference to cancer.
Metastasis The spread of disease from on part of the body to another.
Mutation A change in DNA; a genetic change that may be passed to offspring.
Endoplasmic reticulum Passageway for transport of materials within the cell. Synthesis of lipids.
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis
Proteasomes Site of destruction of old or damaged proteins.
Golgi apparatus Synthesis of carbohydrates. Packaging of materials for secretion from the cell.
Mitochondria Site of aerobic cell respiration-production of ATP and heat.
Lysosomes Contain enzymes to digest ingested material or damaged tissue. Lysis to tear apart.
Centioles Organize the spindle fibers during cell division.
Cilia Sweep materials across the cell surface.
Flagellum Enables cells to move.
Microvilli Increase a cell's surface area for absorption.
Cytoskeleton Protein microfilaments that give shape to a cell, support the membrane and microvilli, and provide for attachment and movement.
Bone 1.A connective tissue made of osteocytes in a calcified matrix. 2.An organ tht is an individual part of the skeleton.
Cartilage A connective tissue made of chondrocytes in a protein matrix; is firm yet flexible.
Chondrocyte A cartilage cell
Collagen A protein that is found in the form of strong fibers in many types of connective tissue.
Connective tissue Tissue that connects supports,transports,or stores materials. Consists of cells and matrix.
Elastin A protein that is found in the form of elastic fibers in several types of connective tissue.
Endocrine gland A ductless gland that secretes its product (hormone) directly into the blood.
Epithelial tissue The tissue found on external and internal body surfaces and that forms glands.
Exocrine gland A gland that secretes its product into a duct to be taken to a cavity or surface.
Hemopoietic tissue A blood-forming tissue, primarily the red bone marrow; lymphatic tissue produces some lymphocytes.
Matrix 1. The non-living intercellular material that is part of connective tissues.2 The part of the hair root in which mitosis takes place.
Mucous membrane The epithelial tissue lining of a body tract that opens to the environment.
Muscle tissue The tissue specialized for contraction and movement of parts of the body.
Neuron A nerve cell; consists of a cell body, an axon, and dendrites.
Neurotransmitter A chemical released by the axon of a neuron, which crosses a synapse and affects the electrical activity of the postsynapic membrane(neuron or muscle cell or gland)
Osteocyte A bone cell
Plasma The water found within the blood vessels. Plasma is 52% to 62% of the total blood.
Secretion The production and release of a cellular product with a useful purpose.
Serous membrane An epithelial membrane that lines a closed body cavity and covers the organs in that cavity.
Synapse The space between the axon of one neuron and the cell body or dendrite of the nest neuron or between the end of a motor neuron and an effector cell.
Thermogenic Heat generating,as is brown fat tissue.
Computed tomography CT scanning. Uses a narrowly focused x-ray beam that circles rapidly around the body
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI good for visulizing soft tissue. Uses magnetic fields, and the body's tissues are pullsed with radio waves.
Positron emission tomography PET Uses images to depict the rates of physiologic processes such as blood flow, oxygen usage, or glucose metabolism.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Similar to PET scan. Portrays brain activity.
Arterioles A small artery
Ceruminous gland/cerumen An exocrine gland in the dermis of the ear canal that secretes cerumen
Dermis The inner layer of the skin , made of fibrous connective tissur.
Eccrine sweat gland The type of sweat gland(exocrine) that produces watery sweat; important in maintenance of normal body temperature.
Epidermis The outer layer of the skin, made of stratified squamous epithelium.
Hair follicle The structure within the skin in which a hair grows.
Keratin A protein produced by epidermal cells; found in the epidermis, hair, and nails (from the Greek "horn").
Melanin A protein pigment produced by melanocytes. Absorbs ultraviolet light; gives color to the skin, hair, iris, and choroid layer of the eye.
Melanocyte A cell in the lower epidermis that synthesizes the pigment melanin.
Nail follicle The structure within the skin of a finger or toe in which a nail grows; mitosis takes place in the nail root.
Papillary layer The uppermost layer of the dermis; contains capillaries to nourish the epidermis.
Receptors A specialized cell or nerve ending that responds to a particular change such as light, sound, heat, touch, or pressure.
Sebaceous gland/sebum An exocrine gland in the dermis that produces sebum. Sebum the lipid (oil) secretion of sebaceous glands.
Stratum germinativum The innermost layer of the epidermis; the cells undergo mitosis to produce new epidermis.
Subcutaneous tissue Subcutaneous-Below the skin; the superficial fascia between the dermis and the muscles.
Vasoconstriction A decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
Vasodilation An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
Acne Inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles.
Alopecia Loss of hair, especially that of the scalp.
Biopsy Removal of a small piece of living tissue for microscopic examination; a diagnostic procedure.
Carcinoma A malignant tumor of epithelial tissue.
Circulatory shock The condition in which decreased cardiac output deprives all tissues of oxygen and permits the accumulation of waste products
Decubitus ulcer The breakdown and death of skin tissue because of prolonged pressure that interrupts blood flow to the area.
Dehydration Excessive loss of water from the body.
Eczema An inflammatory condition of the skinthat may include the formation of vesicles or pustules.
Erythema Redness of the skin.
Histamine An inflammatory chemical released by damaged tissues as part of innate immunity; stimulates increased capillary permeability and vasodilation.
Hives A very itchy eruption of the skin, usually the result of an allergy.
Inflammation The reactions of tissue to injury.
Melanomna Malignant pigmented mole or nevus
Nevus A pigmented area of the skin; a mole.
Pruritus Severe itching.
Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Example: Exchange of gases in the lungs or body tissues
Facilitated diffusion Carrier and transporter enzymes move molecules across cell membranes. Example:Intake of glucose by most cells.
Active transport Movement of molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration.(requires ATP) Example: Absorption of amino acids and glucose from food by the cells of the small intestine. Sodium & potassium pumps in muscle and nerve cells.
Filtration Movement of water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure(blood pressure).
Pinocytosis The process by which a stationary cell ingests very small particles.
Explain how the physiology of the bone relates to its anatomy. The Femer is located in a weight bearing area. Therefore it is made of a dence material that is strong with a hollow center. makeing it strong but light. A bone of the nasal area is thin in order to reduce weight.
Superior Above, or higher
Inferior Below, or lower
Anterior Toward the front
Posterior Toward the back
Ventral Toward the front
Dorsal Toward the back
Medial Toward the middle
Lateral Away from the middle
Internal Within or interior to
External Outside or exterior to
Superficial Toward the surface.
Deep Within or interior to
Central The main part
Peripheral Extending from the main part.
Proximal Closer to the origin
Distal Farther from the origin
Parietal Pertaining to the wall of a cavity.
Visceral Pertaining to the organs within a cavity.
Appendicular skeleton Chp 6 The portion of the skeleton that consists of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and the bones of the arms and legs
Articulation Chp 6 A joint.
Axial Skeleton Chp 6 The portion of the skeleton that consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.
Bursa Chp 6 A sac of synovial fluid that decreases friction between a tendon and a bone.
Diaphysis Chp 6 The shaft of a long bone; contains a marrow canal filled with yellow bone marrow.
Epiphysis Chp 6 The end of a long bone.
Epiphyseal DiscChp 6 A plate of cartilage at the junction of an epiphysis with the diaphysis of a long bone; the site of growth of a long bone
Fontanel Chp 6 An area of fibrous connective tissue membrane between the cranial bones of an infant's skull, where bone formation is not complete.Permits compression of the head during birth @ 2years they become compleatly ossified.
Haversian system Chp 6 The structural unit of compact bone, consisting of a central haversian canal surrounded by concentric rings of osteocytes within a matrix.
Ligament Chp 6 A fibrous connective tissue structure that connects bone to bone.
Ossification Chp 6 The process of bone formation; bone matrix is produced by osteoblasts during the growth or repair of bones
Osteoblast Chp 6 A bone-producing cell; produces bone matrix for the growth or repair of bones
Osteoclast Chp 6 A bone-destroying cell; reabsorbs bone matrix as part of the growth or repair of bones.
Paranasal sinus Chp 6 An air cavity in the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid, or ethmoid bones; opens into the nasal cavities. They make the skull lighter and provide resonance for the voice.
Periosteum Chp 6 Fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collagen fibers merge with the tendons and ligaments attached to the bone. It also anchors these structures & contains the blood vesesls that enter the bone & osteoblasts that become active if the bone is damaged.
Suture Chp 6 A synarthrosis, an immovable joint between cranial bones or facial bones (From the Latin "seam".
symphysis Chp 6 An amphiarthrosis in which a disc of cartilage is found between two bones, as in the vertebral column.
synovial fluid Chp 6 A thick slippery fluid that prevents friction within joint cavities.
Autoimmune disease Chp 6 A condition in which the immune system produces antibodies to the person's own tissue.
Bursitis Chp 6 Inflammation of a bursa.
Fracture Chp 6 A break in a bone.
Herniated disc Chp 6 Rupture of an intervertebral disc.
Kyphosis Chp 6 An exaggerated thoracic curvature of the vertebral column.
Lordosis Chp 6 An exaggerated lumbar curvature of the vertebral column.
Osteoarthritis Chp 6 The inflammation of a joint, especially a weight-bearing joint, that is most often a consequence of aging.
Osteoporosis Chp 6 A condition in which bone matrix is lost and not replaced, resulting in weakened bones that are then more likely to fracture.
Rheumatoid arthritis Chp 6 An autoimmune disease characterized by severe inflammation of joints. The joint damage may progress to fusion and immobility of the joint.
Rickets Chp 6 A deficiency of vitamin D in children, resulting in poor and abnormal bone growth.
Scoliosis Chp 6 A lateral curvature of the vertebral column.
Growth hormone (anterior pituitary gland) chp 6 1.Increases the rate of mitosis of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. 2. Increases the rate of protein synthesis (collagen, cartilage matrix, and enzymes for cartilage and bone formation.
Thyroxine (thyroid gland)Chp 6 1.Increases the rate of protein synthesis. 2.Increases energy production from all food types.
Insulin Chp 6 Increases energy production from glucose.
Parathyroid hormone (parathyroid glands)Chp 6 Increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood. (raises blood calcium level)
Calcitonin (thyroid gland)Chp 6 Decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones (lowers blood calcium level.)
Estrogen (ovaries) or testosterone (testes) 1.Promotes closure of the epiphyses of long bones (growth stops) 2. Helps retain calcium in bones to maintain a strong bone matrix.
What are the Calcium Salts that make up the bone matrix. Chapter 6 Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) & Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) They give the bone strength to perform its supportive and protective functions.
Compact bone Chap 6 Bone tissue made of osteons (haversian systems); forms the diaphyses of long bones and covers the spongy bone of other bones.
Spongy bone chapter 6 Bone tissue not organized into haversian systems; forms most of the body's short, flat, and irregular bones & forms epiphyses of long bones. Often containing red bone marrow, which produces red blood cell, platelets, & the five kinds of white blood cells.
State the locations of red bone marrow, and name the blood cells it produces.chapter 6 Red bone marrow is found in flat and irregular bones. It produces red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets.
Name the tissue of which the embryonic skull is first made. chapter 6 Fibrous connective tissue and cartilage.
Explain how ossification of cranial bones occurs. chapter 6 In the 3rd month, fibroblasts turn into osteoblasts, which produce bone matrix. from the center of ossification bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone.
Genetic potential for height. Chap 6 Each person has a genetic potential for height, that is a maximum height, with genes inherited from both parents.
What nutrients are needed for a child to grow to their genetic potential? Chap 6 Calcium,phosphorus & protein become part of the bone matrix. Vitamin D is needed for efficient absorption of calcium & phosphorus by the small intestine. Vitamins A & C don't become part of the bone,but is necessary for process of bone matrix formation.
Name the tissue of which the embryonic femur is first made. Chap 6 Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue.
Explain how ossification of the embryonic femur bone occurs. Chap 6 From each center of ossification, bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone by cells called osteoblasts
Describe what happens in epiphyseal discs to produce growth of long bones. Chap 6 In long bones, growth occures in the epiph7yseal discs at teh junction of the diaphysis with each epiphysis.
Explain the functions of parathyroid hormone with respect to bone matrix and to blood Calcium level. Chap 6 Parathyroid hormone increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood. (raises blood calcium levels). It also increases the absorption of calcium byh the small intestine and kidneys. (to the blood).
Explain the functions of Calcitonin hormone with respect to bone matrix and to blood Calcium level. Chap 6 Calcitonin is produced in the thyroid gland and decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones (lowers blood calcium levels).
Explain how estrogen or testosterone affects bone growth, and when. Chap 6 They promote closure of the epiphyses of long bones (growth stops), and help retain calcium in bones to maintain a strong bone matrix.
State one way each of the following hormones helps promote bone growth: insulin, thyroxine, growth hormone. Chap 6 They help regulate cell division, protein synthesis , calcium metabolism, and energy production.
Name the bones that make up the braincase. Chap 6 pg 123. They are all lined with meninges. They are the Frontal,bone, parietal bones (two), temporal bones (two) and occipital bone. The sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone are part of the floor the braincase & orbits for the eyes.
Frontal Bone chap 6 pg 123 The frontal bone forms the forehead and the anterior part of the top of the skull.
Parietal bones. Chp 6 pg 123 Parietal means "wall," and the two large parietal bones form the posterior top and much of the side walls of the skull.
Temporal bone. Chp 6 pg 123 Each temporal bone on the side of the skull contains an external auditory ear labyrith.
Occipital bone. Chp 6 pg 123 The occipital bone forms the lower, posterior part of the braincase. Its foramen magnum is a large opening for the spinal cord, and the two condyles(round projection) on either side articulate with the atlas, the first cervical vertebra.
Sphenoid bone. Chp 6 pg 123 Shaped like a bat, greater wing is visible on the side of the skull between the frontal and temporal bones. The body has a depression called the sella turcia, which encloses the pituitary gland.
Ethmoid bone. Chp 6 pg 123 Has a vertical projection called the crista galli (rooster's comb) that anchors the cranial meninges. The rest of the bone forms the roof and upper walls of the nasal cavities, & its perpendicular plate forms the upper part of the nasal septum.
Mandible. Chap6 pg 123 Of the facial bones, only the mandible is movable; it forms a condyloid joint with each temporal bone.
Maxillae. Chp 6 pg 123 The maxillae are the 2 upper jaw bones, which also form the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof of the mouth). Sockets for the roots of the teeth are found in the maxillae and the mandible.
Nasal bones. Chp 6 pg 123 The 2 nasal bones form the bridge of the nose where they articulate with the frontal bone (the rest of the nose is supported by cartilage).
Lacrimal bone. Chp 6 pg 123 There is a lacrimal bone at the medial side of each orbit; the lacrimal canal contains the lacrimal sac, a passageway for tears.
Zygomatic bones. Chp 6 pg 123 Each of the two zygomatic bones froms the point of a cheek, and articulates with the maxilla, frontal bone, and temporal bone.
Palatine bones Chp 6 pg 123 The two palatine bones are the posterior portion of the hard palate.
Vomer Chp 6 pg 123 The plow-shaped vomer forms the lower part of the nasal septum; it articulates with the perpendicular plate of teh ethmiod bone.
Conchae Chp 6 pg 123 On either side of the vomer are the conchae, six scroll-like bones that curl downward from the sides of the nasal cavities; they help increase the surface area of the nasal mucosa.
Mastoid Sinuses Chp 6 pg 123 The Mastoid sinuses are air cavities in the mastiod process of each temporal bone; they open into the middle ear.
Auditory bones. Chp 6 pg 123 Within each middle eare cavity are three auditory bone the malleus, incus, and stapes. These bones transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the receptors in the inner ear.
Vertebral column. Chp 6 pg 123 The vertebral column is made of individual bones called vertebrae. They are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral fused into 1 sacrum, and 4 to 5 small coccygeal vertebrae fused into 1 coccyx.
Cervical vertebrae. Chp 6 pg 123 7 cervical vertebrae in the neck. 1st is the Atalas, which articulates with the occipital bone to support the skull and forms a pivot joint with the odontoid process of the Axis, the 2nd vertebra. This pivot joint allows us to turn our heads side to side.
Thoracic vertebrae. Chp 6 pg 123 The thoracic vertebrae (12) articulate with the ribs on the posterior side of the trunk.
Lumbar vertebrae. Chp 6 pg 123 The lumbar vertebrae, the largest and strongest bones of the spine, are found in the small of the back.
Sacrum. Chp 6 pg 123 The sacurm permits the articulation of the two hip bones: the sacroiliac joints.
Coccyx. Chp 6 pg 123 The coccyx is the remnant of tail vertebrae, and some muscles of the perineum (pelvic floor) are acchored to it.
Vertebral canal. Chp 6 pg 123 The vertebral canal is a tunnel lined with the meninges. It has bones that contain the spinal cord . The spinous and transverse processes are projections for the attachment of the muscles that bend the vertebral column.
Rib cage. Chp 6 pg 130 The rib cage has 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum, or breastbone.
Sternum. Chp 6 pg 130 the sternum is in 3 parts. the upper manubrium, the central body and the lower xiphoid process. The manubrium articulates with the clavicles.
Ribs. Chp 6 pg 130 All of the ribs articulate posteriorly with the thoracic vertebrae. The 1st 7 pairs of ribs are called true ribs; they articulate directly with the manubrium and body of the sternum bay means of costal cartilages.
False ribs. Chp 6 pg 130 False ribs are the next 3 pairs of ribs after the true ribs; theeir cartilages join the 7th rib cartilage.
Floating ribs. Chp 6 pg 130 The last two pairs of ribs under the False ribs are called the floating ribs because they do not articulate with the sternum at all.
Intercostal muscles Chp 6 pg 130 The ribs are pulled upward and outward by the external intercostal muscles. This enlarges the chest cavity, which expands the lungs and contributes to inhalation.
Scapula Chp 6 pg 130 The scapula is a large, flat bone with several projections ( the spine of the scapula, the coracoid process) that anchor some of the smscles thatg move the upper arm & the forearm.
Glenoid fossa Chp 6 pg 130 forms a ball-and-socket joint with the humerus, the bone of the upper arm.
Clavicle Chp 6 pg 130 The medial end of each clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum.
Intercavicular notch/suprasternal notch At the base of your neck, you can feel the space between the two clavicles; this is called the inerclavicular or suprasternal notch.
Humerus Chp 6 pg 130 The humerus is the long bone of the upper arm.
Hinge joint Chp 6 pg 130 The humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna of the forearm. This hinge joint, the elbow, permitsw movement in 1 plane, that is back and forth with no lateral movement.
The forearm bones. Chp 6 pg 130 The forearm bones are the ulna on the little finger side and the radius on the thumb side.
Semilunar notch and Trochlea Chp 6 pg 130 The semilunar notch of the ulna is part of the hinge joint of the elbow; it articulate with the trochlea of the humerus.
Pivot joint Chp 6 pg 130 Rhe radius & the ulna articulate proximally to form a pivot joint, which permits turning the hand palm up to palm down.
Carpals Chp 6 pg 130 The carpals are 8 small bones in the wrist; gliding joints between them permit a sliding movement.
Metacarpals Chp 6 pg 130 The 5 bones of the palm
Saddle joint/carpometacarpal joint Chp 6 pg 134 The thumb is more movable than the fingers because of its carpometacarpal joint. This is a saddle joint, this inables the thumb to cross over the palm, and permits gripping.
Phalanges Chp 6 pg 134 Are the bones of the fingers. there are 2 in each thumb and 3 in each of the fingers. Beteeen phalanges are hinge joints. They are also in the foot.
Hip Bones Chp 6 pg 134 The pelvic girdle (or pelvic bone) consists of the 2 hip bones (coxae or innominate bones), which articulate with the axial skeleton at the sacrum.
The 3 major parts of the hip bones: Chp 6 pg 134 the ilium, ischium, and pubis
Illium.Chp 6 pg 134 The illium is the flared , upper portion of the hip that forms the sacroiliac joint.
Pubis. Chp 6 pg 134 The pubis is the lower most anterior part of the hip.
Pubic symphysis. Chp 6 pg 134 The two pubic bones articulate with one another at the pubic symphysis.
Acetabulum. Chp 6 pg 134 The acetabulum is the socket in the hip bone that forms a ball-and-socket joint with the femur.
Patella. Chp 6 pg 134 The patella, or kneecap, is anterior to the knee joint, enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris, a large muscle,group of the anterior thigh.
Fibula. Chp 6 pg 137 A long bone of the lower leg; on the lateral side, thinner than the tibia.
Tarsals. Chp 6 pg 137 The tarsals are the seven bones in the ankle.
Calcaneus. Chp 6 pg 137 A short bone, the largest of the tarsals; the heel bone.
Synarthrosis joint. Chp 6 pg 137 Is an immovable joint, such as the suture between two cranial bones.
Amphiarthrosis joint. Chp 6 pg 137 Is a slightly movable joint, such as the symphysis joint between adjacent vertebrae.
Diarthrosis joint. Chp 6 pg 137 Is a freely movable joint. This is the largest category of joints and includes the ball-and-socket,pivot, hinge, and others.
Synovial Joints. Chp 6 pg 138 Are all freely movable joints. On the joint sufface of each bone is the articular cartilage. The joint capsule, made of fibrous connective tissue, encloses the joint in a strong sheath, like a sleeve.
Synovial fluid. Chp 6 pg 138 Lining the joint capsule is the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity. It is thick and slippery and prevents friction as the bones move.
Bursae. Chp 6 pg 138 Many synovial joints also have bursae which are small sacs of synovial fluid between the joint . Bursae permit the tendons to slide easily as the bones are moved.
Actin. Chp 7 A contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers; is pulled by myosin; also forms the cytoskeleton in most cells.
Antagonistic muscles. Chp 7 Muscles that have oposite functions with respect to the movement of a joint.
Creatine phosphate. Chp 7 An energy source in muscle fibers; the energy released is used to synthesize ATP.
Depolarization. Chp 7 The reversal of electrical charges on either side of a cell membrane in response to a stimulus; negative charge outside and positive charge inside; brought about by a rapid inflow of sodium ions.
Fascia. Chp 7 A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers individual skeletal muscles and certain organs.
Insertion. Chp 7 The more movable attachment point of a muscle to a bone.
Isometric. Chp 7 Contraction of the muscles without movement of a body part.
Lactic acid. Chp 7 The chemical end product of anerobic cell respiration; lowers pH and contributes to fatigue in the muscle cells.
Muscle fatigue. Chp 7 The state in which muscle fibers can no longer contract efficiently; may be the result of lack of oxygen and/or the accumulation of lactic acid.
Muscle sense. Chp 7 The conscious or unconscious awareness of where the muscles are, and their degree of contraction, without having to look at them.
Muscle tone. Chp 7 The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles.
Myoglobin. Chp 7 The protein in muscle fibers that contains iron and stores oxygen in muscle fibers.
Myosin. Chp 7 A contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers; pulls actin filamentsl.
Neuromuscular junction. Chp 7 The termination of a motor neruon on the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber; the synapse is the microscopic space between the two structures.
Origin. Chp 7 The more stationary attachment point of a muscle to a bone.
Oxygen debt. Chp 7 The state in which there is not enough oxygen to complete the process of aeobic cell respiration; lactic acid is formed, which contributes to muscle fatigue.
Polarization. Chp 7 Distribution of ions on either side of a membrane in resting neuron or muscle cell sodium ions are more abundant outside the cell & potassium & - ions are more abundant inside the cell giving the membrane a + charge outside & a relative - charge inside.
Prime Mover. Chp 7 The muscle responsible for the main action when a joint is moved.
Sarcolemma. Chp 7 The cell membrane of a muscle fiber.
Sarcomeres. Chp 7 The unit of contraciton in a skeletal muscle fiber; a precise arrangement of myosin and actin filaments between two Z lines.
Synergistic muscles. Chp 7 Muscles that have the same function, or a stabilizing function, with respect to the movement of a joint.
Tendon. Chp 7 A fibrous connective tissue structure that connects muscle to bone.
Anabolic steroids. Chp 7 A chemical similar in structure and action to the male hormone testosterone; increases protein synthesis, especially in muscles.
Atrophy. Chp 7 Decrease in size of a body part due to lack of use; a wasting.
Botulism. Chp 7 A disease, characterized by muscle paralysis, caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Hypertrophy.Chp 7 Increase in size of a body part, especially of a muscle following long term exersize or overuse.
Intramuscular injection. Chp 7 An injection of a medication into a muscle.
Muscular dystrophy. Chp 7 A genetic disease characterized by the replacement of muscle tissue by fibrous connective tissue or adipose tissue, with progressive loss of muscle functioning; the most common form is Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.
Myalgia. Chp 7 Pain or tenderness in a muscle.
Myasthenia gravis. Chp 7 An autoimmune disease characterized by extreme muscle weakness and fatigue following minimal exertion.
Myopathy. Chp 7 A disease or abnormal condition of skeletal muscles.
Paralysis. Chp 7 Complete or partial loss of function, especially of a muscle.
Range-of-motion exercises. Chp 7 Movements of joints through their full range of motions; used to preserve mobility or to regain mobility following an injury.
Sex-linked trait. Chp 7 A genetic characteristic in which the gene is located on the X chromosome.
Tetanus. Chp 7 1. A sustained contraction of a muscle fiber in responce to rapid nerve impulses,' the basis for all useful movements. 2. a disease characterized by several muscle spasms
Afferent (AFF-uh-rent Ch 8 Sensory neurons (or afferent neurons) carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system. Receptors detect external or internal changes and send the information to the CNS in the form of impulses by way of the afferent neuroris.
Autonomic nervous system Chp 8 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is actually part of the peripheral nervous system in that it consists of motor portions of some cranial and spinal nerves
Cerebral cortex Chp 8 The surface of the cerebrum is gray matter called the cerebral cortex.
Cerebrospinal fluid Chp 8 the tissue fluid of the central nervous system.
Choroid plexus Chp 8 Each ventricle of the brain contains a capillary network called a choroid plexus, which forms the cerebrospinal fluid from blood plasma¬
Some bones contain and protect the ____________, the principal,hemopoietic tissue that produces the blood cells. red bone marrow Chapter 6 WB
Bones are a storage site for excess __________ (mineral), which is essential for blood clotting as well as bone structure. calcium. Chapter 6 WB
The skeleton is a framework that ___________ the body. Supports. Chapter 6 WB
Attached to the skeleton are the ___________ that move the bones. Muscles. Chapter 6 WB
Some bones protect the internal organs from __________. Mechanical injury. Chapter 6 WB
Compact bone.Chapter 6 WB Made of haversian systems, which are cylindrical arrangements of osteocytes within matrix.
Spongy bone. Chapter 6 WB Contains osteocytes and bone matrix, but these are not arranged in haversian systems. These also often contain red bone marrow.
Osteocytes. Chapter 6 WB Regulate the amount of calcium in the bone matrix, and are called bone cells.
Bone Matrix. Chapter 6 WB Are made up of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.
Long bones. Chapter 6 WB Bones of the arms, legs, hands and feet. Each consists of a diaphysis made of compact bone and epiphyses made of spongy bone. The marrow canal contains yellow bone marrow.
Short bones. Chapter 6 WB Wrist and ankle bones. Made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone. The spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
Flat bones. Chapter 6 WB Pelvic bone. Cranial bones, ribs. Made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone. The spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
Irregular bones. Chapter 6 WB Vertebrae, facial bones. Made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone. The spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
The tissue that covers the joint surfaces of bones is ____________, which provides a smooth surface when joints are moved. cartilage. Chapter 6 WB
The membrane that covers the rest of a bone is called the ____________ and is made of _________ connective tissue. periosteum, fibrous. Chapter 6 WB
The periosteum contains ____________ that enter the bone itself. blood vessels. Chapter 6 WB
The periosteum anchors the _________ that connect muscle to bone, and the ____________ that connect bone to bone. Both of these connecting structures are made of what type of tissue? ________________. tendons, ligaments. fibrous connective tissue. Chapter 6 WB
The skeleton of the embryo is first formed of other tissues that are gradually replaced by bone. The process of bone replacement of another tissue is called ___________. The production of bone matrix is accomplished by cells called __________. ossification, osteoblasts. Chapter 6 WB
In the embryo, the cranial and facial bones are first made up of which tissue __________? The process of ossivication begins in the ___________ month of gestation, when osteoblasts differentiate from _______ in the centers of ossification in these bones. fibrous connective tissue, third, fibroblasts. Chapter 6 WB
At birth, ossification of the bones of the skull is not complete, and areas of fibrous connective tissue called ____________ remain between the bones. fontanels. Chapter 6 WB
Explain the purpose of fontanels. Chapter 6 WB Fontanels permit compression of the infant's skull during birth.
In the embryo, bones of the trunk and extremities are first made of which tissue? cartilage. Chapter 6 WB
In a long bone, several centers of ossification develop: on in the __________ and one or more in each ____________ of the bone. diaphysis, epiphysis. Chapter 6 WB
At birth, ossification of these bones is not complete. In long bones, growth occurs at the sites of the ____________, which are made of cartilage. epiphyseal discs. Chapter 6 WB
Closure of the epiphyseal discs means that all of the ______________ of the discs has been replaced by ______________, and growth in length stops. cartilage, bone. Chapter 6 WB
In long bones, the marrow canal is formed by cells called _________ that reabsorb bone matrix. After birth, the marrow canal contains ___________ bone marrow, which is mostly ___________tissue. osteoclasts, yellow, adipose. Chapter 6 WB
Vitamin D. Chapter 6 WB Necessary for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.
Vitamin C. Chapter 6 WB Necessary for the process of bone formation.
Vitamin A. Chapter 6 WB Necessary for the process of bone formation.
Calcium. Chapter 6 WB Becomes part of the salts of bone matrix.
Phosphorus. Chapter 6 WB Becomes part of the salts of bone matrix.
Protein. Chapter 6 WB Becomes part of the collagen of bone matrix.
Alpha cells (AL-fah SELLS) Alpha cells (AL-fah SELLS) The cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucagon (Chapter 10).
Beta cells (BAY-tah SELLS) Beta cells (BAY-tah SELLS) The cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone insulin (Chapter 10).
Catecholamines(KAT-e-kohl-ah-MEENZ) Catecholamines (KAT-e-KOHL-ah-meens) Epinephrine and norepinephrine, the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla (Chapter 10).
Corpus luteum (KOR-pus LOO-tee-um) Corpus luteum (KOR-pus LOO-tee-um) The temporary endocrine gland formed from an ovarian follicle that has released an ovum; secretes progesterone and estrogen (Chapter 10).
Gluconeogenesis (GLOO-koh-nee-oh-JEN-i-sis) Gluconeogenesis (GLOO-koh-nee-oh-JEN-i-sis) The conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production (Chapter 10).
Glycogenesis(GLIGH-koh-JEN-i-sis) Glycogenesis (GLY-koh-JEN-i-sis) The conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy (Chapter 10).
Glycogenolysis (GLIGH-ko-jen-OL-i-sis) Glycogenolysis (GLY-koh-jen-AHL-i-sis) The conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production (Chapter 10).
Hypercalcemia (HIGH-per-kal-SEE-mee-ah) Hypercalcemia (HIGH-per-kal-SEE-mee-ah) A high blood calcium level (Chapter 10).
Hyperglycemia (HIGH-per-gligh-SEE-mee-ah) Hyperglycemia (HIGH-per-gligh-SEE-mee-ah) A high blood glucose level (Chapter 10).
Hypocalcemia (HIGH-poh-kal-SEE-mee-ah) Hypocalcemia (HIGH-poh-kal-SEE-mee-ah) A low blood calcium level (Chapter 10).
Hypoglycemia (HIGH-poh-gligh-SEE-mee-ah) Hypoglycemia (HIGH-poh-gligh-SEE-mee-ah) A low blood glucose level (Chapter 10).
Hypophysis (high-POFF-e-sis) Hypophysis (high-POFF-e-sis) The pituitary gland (Chapter 10).
Islets of Langerhans (EYE-lets of LAHNG-er-hanz) Islets of Langerhans (EYE-lets of LAHNG-er-hanz) The endocrine portions of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon (Syn.—pancreatic islets) (Chapter 10).
Prostaglandins (PRAHS-tah-GLAND-ins) Prostaglandins (PRAHS-tah-GLAND-ins) Locally acting hormone-like substances produced by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cell membranes; the many types have many varied functions (Chapter 10).
Renin-angiotensin mechanism (REE-nin AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin) Renin-angiotensin mechanism (REE-nin AN-jee-oh- TEN-sin) A series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidneys to secrete the enzyme renin; culminates in the formation of angiotensin II (Chapter 10).
Sympathomimetic (SIM-pah-tho-mi-MET-ik) Sympathomimetic (SIM-pah-tho-mi-MET-ik) Having the same effects as sympathetic impulses, as has epinephrine, a hormone of the adrenal medulla (Chapter 10).
Target organ (TAR-get OR-gan) Target organ (TAR-get OR-gan) The organ (or tissue) in which a hormone exerts its specific effects (Chapter 10).
Acromegaly (AK-roh-MEG-ah-lee) Acromegaly (AK-roh-MEG-ah-lee) Hypersecretion of growth hormone in an adult, resulting in excessive growth of the bones of the face, hands, and feet (Chapter 10).
Addison's disease (ADD-i-sonz) Addison's disease (ADD-i-sonz) Hyposecretion of the hormones of the adrenal cortex, characterized by low blood pressure, dehydration, muscle weakness, and mental lethargy (Chapter 10).
Cretinism (KREE-tin-izm) Cretinism (KREE-tin-izm) Hyposecretion of thyroxine in an infant; if uncorrected, the result is severe mental and physical retardation (Chapter 10).
Cushing's syndrome (KOOSH-ingz SIN-drohm) Cushing's syndrome (KOOSH-ingz SIN-drohm) Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids of the adrenal cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities (Chapter 10).
Diabetes mellitus (DYE-ah-BEE-tis mel-LYE-tus) Diabetes mellitus (DYE-ah-BEE-tis mel-LYE-tus) Hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas or the inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by hyperglycemia, increased urinary output with glycosuria, and thirst (Chapter 10).
Giantism (JIGH-an-tizm) Giantism (JIGH-an-tizm) Excessive growth of the body or its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood (Chapter 10).
Goiter (GOY-ter) Goiter (GOY-ter) An enlargement of the thyroid gland, often due to a lack of dietary iodine (Chapter 10).
Graves' disease (GRAYVES) Graves' disease (GRAYVES) Hypersecretion of thyroxine, believed to be an autoimmune disease; symptoms reflect the elevated metabolic rate (Chapter 10).
Ketoacidosis (KEY-toh-ass-i-DOH-sis) Ketoacidosis (KEY-toh-ass-i-DOH-sis) A metabolic acidosis that results from the accumulation of ketones in the blood when fats and proteins are used for energy production (Chapter 10).
Myxedema (MIK-suh-DEE-mah) Myxedema (MIK-suh-DEE-mah) Hyposecretion of thyroxine in an adult; decreased metabolic rate results in physical and mental lethargy (Chapter 10).
Pituitary dwarfism (pi-TOO-i-TER-ee DWORF-izm) Dwarfism (DWORF-izm) The condition of being abnormally small, especially small of stature due to a hereditary or endocrine disorder; pituitary dwarfism is caused by a deficiency of growth hormone (Chapter 10).
The secretions of endocrine glands are called ______________ ,which enter capillaries and circulate in the ___________. hormones, blood.
The cells (organ) on which a hormone exerts its specific effects are called its___________ cells (organ). target
These cells respond to particular hormones because of the presence of ______________ for these hormones, often on the cell membrane. receptors
Hormones may be classified in three groups based upon their chemical structure. These groups are _________ ____________ and ________. amines, proteins, and steroids.
The pituitary gland is enclosed and protected by the____________ bone. sphenoid.
The thyroid gland is on the anterior side of the trachea just below the ____________. larynx.
The parathyroid glands are located on the posterior sides of the lobes of the ___________. thyroid gland.
The pancreas is located in the upper abdominal cavity between the ___________ and the __________. duodenum, spleen.
The adrenal glands are located on top of the _________. kidneys.
The ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity on either side of the _____________. uterus.
The testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in the ___________. scrotum.
The two parts of the pituitary gland are the ________ and the _________. anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary.
The posterior pituitary gland stores two hormones that are actually produced by the ____________. hypothalamus.
The anterior pituitary gland secretes its hormones in response to _______________ hormones (factors)from the ___________. releasing, hypothalamus.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)—May also be called ________, and its target organs are the _________. vasopressin, kidneys.
The function of ADH is to __________ reabsorption of ____________ by the kidneys. As a result of this function, urinary output ________, and blood volume ______________ , which helps maintain blood pressure. increase, water b) decreases, increases.
The stimulus for secretion of ADH is __________ (increased or decreased) water within the body. decreased
Oxytocin—a) Its target organs are the __________ and ______________. uterus and mammary glands
With respect to the uterus, oxytocin causes contractions of the __________ for delivery of the _________ and the _____________. smooth muscle (myometrium), baby, placenta.
With respect to the mammary glands, oxytocin causes the release of __________. milk.
The stimulus for secretion of oxytocin is nerve impulses from the ________ during labor or when nursing a baby. hypothalamus.
Growth hormone (GH)—Has many target organs and tissues. Functions: 1) Increases the transport of _________ into cells and the synthesis of _____________. 2) Increases the rate of __________, which results in more cells in growing organs. 1) amino acids, proteins. and 2) mitosis. As well as Increases the use of fats for energy, by increasing its removal from adipose tissue.
The stimulus for secretion of GH is __________from the hypothalamus. GHRH
The secretion of GH is inhibited by _________ from the hypothalamus. GHIH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)—a) Its target organ is the __________ . b) Function: Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete __________and ___________. c) The stimulus for secretion of TSH is __________ from the hypothalamus. a) thyroid gland b) thyroxine and T3 c) TRH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)—a) Its target organs are the___________.b) Function: Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete ___________. c) The stimulus for secretion of ACTH is __________ from the hypothalamus. a) adrenal cortex, b) cortisol, c) CRH
Prolactin a) Its target organs are the ________.b) Function: Causes production of _______ by the mammary glands.c) The secretion of prolactin is regulated by PRF and PRJF from the __________. a) mammary glands, b) milk, c) hypothalamus.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Its target organs in women are the __________ and in men are the __________. a) ovaries, testes
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHb) Functions in women: Initiates the development of____________in ovarian follicles and increases thesecretion of the hormone_____________by the follicle cells. b) egg cells, estrogen
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) c) Function in men: Initiates the production of _______________ in the tests. c) sperm
d) The stimulus for secretion of FSH is _____________ from the hypothalamus. d) GnRH
Luteinizing hormone (LH)—a) Its target organs in women are the______________ and in men are the ______________________. a) ovaries, testes
In Luteinizing hormone (LH) b) Functions in women: 1) Cause _________ , which is the release of a mature egg from an ovarian follicle. 2) Causes the ruptured follicle to become the_____________and to secrete the hormone ______________ as well as estrogen. b) 1) ovulation 2) corpus luteum, progesterone
In Luteinizing hormone (LH) c) Function in men: Causes the testes to secrete the hormone _______________. c) testosterone
In Luteinizing hormone (LH) d) The stimulus for secretion of LH is ____________ from the hypothalamus. d) GnRH
In Luteinizing hormone (LH) e) Both FSH and LH have their effects on the ovaries or testes and may therefore be called _______________ hormones. e) gonadotropic
THYROID GLAND1. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)—Have many target organs & tissues. a) Functions: 1) Increase the synthesis of_________within cells. Increase the rate of cell respiration of_________,___________, & __________ to produce ATP & heat. 1. a) 1) proteins 2 carbohydrates, fats, and excess amino acids. And these functions are essential for physical growth and mental growth.
In the Thyroid gland the mineral necessary for the synthesis of thyroxine and T 3 is _________________ . The stimulus for secretion of thyroxine and T 3 is ______________ from the _______________. iodine/TSH, anterior pituitary.
In the Thyroid gland c) The stimulus for secretion of thyroxine and T3 is ____________ from the ______________. TSH, anterior pituitary
Calcitonin ,Its target organs are the __________. bones
The function of Calcitonin is to Decreases the reabsorption of ____________ and _____________ from bones. calcium and phosphate.
As a result of the function of reabsorbtion the blood levels of calcium and phosphorus are _____________. decreased
The stimulus for secretion of calcitonin is ____________. hypercalcemia
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)—a) Its target organs are the ______________. bones, small intestine, kidneys.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases the reabsorption of ____________ and ____________ from the bones to the blood. calcium and phosphate
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases the absorption of Ca and P from food in the ___________. small intestine
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases the reabsorption of _____________ by the kidneys. calcium.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)Stimulates the kidneys to activate vitamin _____________. D
As a result of Parathyroithe blood level of calcium is _______________ , and the phosphate blood level is _________________. increased, decreased.
Secretion of PTH is stimulated by __________, and inhibited by ______________. hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia
The endocrine glands of the pancreas are called __________ , which contain alpha cells and beta cells.Alpha cells produce the hormone ____________, and beta cells produce the hormone _______________. a) islets of Langerhans b) glucagon, insulin
Glucagon—a) Its primary target organ is the _________ Liver
Glucagon functions 1) Causes the liver to convert stored ______________ to glucose to be used for energy production. 2) Increases the use of _________ and ________ for energy production. b) 1) glycogen c) increased, food
The stimulus for secretion of glucagon is _____________. hypoglycemia
Insulin Causes the liver to change __________ to glycogen to be stored glucose
Glycogen is also stored in ___________ muscles. skeletal
Insulin Enables other body cells to take in _________ from the blood to use for __________ production. glucose, energy
Insulin Increases the intake of __________ and __________ by cells, to be used for the synthesis of __________ and ___________. amino acids and fatty acids; proteins and fats
The stimulus for secretion of insulin is _____________. hyperglycemia
The two parts of an adrenal gland are the __________ and the _____________. adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
The term catecholamines is a collective term for the hormones _____________ and _____________ ,which are secreted by the adrenal _______________. epinephrine and norepinephrine, medulla
The adrenal______________ secretes a group of hormones called mineralocorticoids, of which ___________ is the most important. cortex, aldosterone
The adrenal ______________ secretes a group of hormones called glucocorticoids, of which ___________ is the most important. cortex, cortisol
In regards to the Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine—a) Its primary target organs are ___________.b) Function: Causes ___________ throughout the body, which raises blood pressure. 1. a) blood vessels b) vasoconstriction
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues,the Effect on the heart are ____________. increases rate
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on blood vessels in skeletal muscle are __________________. vasodilation
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on blood vessels in skin and viscera _________________. vasoconstriction
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on intestines are ____________. decreases peristalsis
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues,the Effect on bronchioles are _____________. dilation
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on liver is the _______________. conversion of glycogen to glucose
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on use of fats for energy _____________. increases use
The stimulus for secretion of both norepinephrine and epinephrine is ___________ impulses from the hypodialamus in ______________ situations. sympathetic, stressful
Aldosterone— Its target organs are the ___________. kidneys
Aldosterone Functions: Increases the reabsorption of ________________ ions and the excretion of ________________ ions by the kidneys. b) sodium, potassium
As a result of Aldosterone function 1. ___________ ions are excreted in urine, 2. _______ ions and ____________ ions are returned to the blood. 3._____________ is returned to the blood by osmosis following Na+ ion reabsorption. c) 1) hydrogen (or K+) 2) sodium and bicarbonate 3) water
aldosterone helps maintain normal blood volume and _______________. blood pressure (or pH)
The stimuli for secretion of aldosterone are decreased blood level of _______________ ions, or increased blood level of ____________ ions, or a decrease in __________. sodium, potassium, blood pressure
2. Cortisol—Has many target organs and tissues, the functions of which 1 Increases the use of ___________ and ____________ for energy production. 2 Decreases the use of ___________ for energy, so that this energy source is available for use by brain cells 2. a) 1) amino acids, fats 2) glucose
Cortisol function has an ______________ effect, which prevents excessive tissue destruction when damage occurs. anti-inflammatory
The stimulus for secretion of cortisol is ________ from the ___________ in situations of physiological stress. ACTH, anterior pituitary
Estrogen—a) Its target organs include the _________ and the __________. a) uterus, mammary glands (or) bones, adipose tissue
Estrogen Promotes maturation of the __________ in an ovarian follicle. Promotes growth of blood vessels in the _______ of the uterus, to prepare for a fertilized egg. Promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics which include ___ 1) ovum 2) endometrium 3) growth of duct system of mammary glands (or) fat deposition
Estrogen Stops growth in height by promoting _________ in long bones. closure of the epiphyseal discs
The stimulus for secretion of estrogen is __________ from the ___________. FSH, anterior pituitary
Progesterone a) Its target organs are the __________ and ___________. uterus, mammary glands
Progesteron function 1) Increases the growth of ________ and the storage of __________ in the endometrium of the uterus.2) Promotes the growth of the ___________ of the mammary glands. 1) blood vessels, glycogen 2) secretory cells
The stimulus for secretion of progesterone is __________ from the _____________. LH, anterior pituitary
Ovarian Inhibin—a) Its target organs are the __________ and the __________. b) Function: Decreases the secretion of ____________ and ____________. a) anterior pituitary, hypothalamus b) FSH, GnRH
Testosterone—a) Its target organs include the __________ and the _____________. a) testes, bones, muscles (or) reproductive organs
Testosterone functions 1) Promotes maturation of _________ in the testes. 2) Promotes the development of the male secondary sex characteristics, which include ___________ .3) Stops growth in height by promoting ____________ in long bones. b) 1) sperm 2) growth of reproductive organs (or) larynx, facial hair, muscles 3) closure of the epiphyseal discs
The stimulus for secretion of testosterone __________ from the ____________. LH, anterior pituitary
In a Male Inhibin—a) Its target organ is the ________ anterior pituitary
b)Inhibin Function: Decreases the secretion of___________ ., which helps maintain ___________ at a constant rate. FSH, spermatogenesis
The stimulus for secretion of inhibin in males is ___________. increased testosterone
a) Melatonin is produced by the _____________. b) In people, melatonin brings about the onset of _____________. 1. a) pineal gland b) sleep
a) Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances made by cells from the ___________ of their cell membranes. b) In contrast to hormones, whose site of action is often distant from the site of production, prostaglandins usual exert their effects ____________. 2. a) phospholipids b) locally
There are many different prostaglandins with many functions. State three different functions of prostaglandins. three of these: blood clotting, pain mechanisms, digestive secretions, reproduction, inflammation, vasodilation or vasoconstriction
Cells respond to some hormones but not to others because of the presence of _________ for certain hormones on the cell membrane or within the cell. When a cell has receptors for a particular hormone, the cell is said to be __________ cell for that hormone a) receptors b) target
The two-messenger mechanism—Protein hormones 1) In this mechanism, the first messenger is the _________ 2) The bonding of the hormone to cell receptors stimulates the formation of __________ within the cell, and this is the second messenger. 1) hormone 2) cyclic AMP
State two general types of cellular responses to hormones _____________ and ___________. secretion of a product; protein synthesis (or) a change in membrane permeability
1) Steroid hormones diffuse into cells because they are soluble in the __________ of cell membranes.2) The steroid hormone combines with a _________ in the cytoplasm of the cell and then enters the __________ of the cell. 1) lipids 2) receptor, nucleus
Within the nucleus, the steroid protein complex activates specific ____________ to start the process ____________.The cell's response to the hormone is thus brought about by the _________ that are produced. 3) genes, protein synthesis 4) enzymes
Giantism Growth hormone in childhood.Excessive growth of long bones.
Graves' disease Thyroxine.Rapid heart rate, excessive heat production, and weight loss.
Cushing's syndrome Cortisol.Bones and skin become fragile; fat is deposited in the trunk of the body
Acromegaly Growth hormone in adulthood.Excessive growth of bones of hands, feet, and face.
Myxedema Thyroxine in adulthood.Muscular weakness, slow heart rate, weight gain.
Cretinism Thyroxine in infancy.Severe mental and physical disability.
Dwarfism Growth hormone in childhood. Minimal growth of long bones; very short stature.
Addison's disease Cortisol and aldosterone.Severe dehydration and hypoglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus Insulin.Cells cannot utilize glucose for energy; the blood glucose level rises.
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. ADH is Decreased water content in the body
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion.2) Aldosterone A. Decreased sodium ion concentration in the blood
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion.3) Calcitonin J. Hypercalcemia
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion.4) Cortisol D. ACTH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion.5) Estrogen F. FSH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 6) Epinephrine and norepinephrine G. Sympathetic impulses from the hypothalamus during stressful situations
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 7) FSH M. GnRH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 8) Glucagon I. Hypoglycemia
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 9) Growth hormone B. GHRH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 10) Insulin H. Hyperglycemia
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 11) LH M. GnRH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 12) Oxytocin C. Impulses from the hypothalamus during labor or nursing.
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 13) PTH K. Hypocalcemia
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 14) Progesterone L. LH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 15) T4 and T3 N. TSH
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 16) Testosterone L. LH
The hormone that lowers blood glucose level by enabling cells to take in glucose is: insulin
The hormone that increases the rate of cell division is? growth hormone
The two hormones that regulate blood calcium level are? parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
The hormone that initiates egg or sperm production is? FSH
In men, the hormone necessary for maturation of sperm is? testosterone
In women, the hormone that causes ovulation is? LH
7. Two hormones that cause the liver to change glycogen to glucose are: b) glucagon and epinephrine
8. The hormone that increases protein synthesis and the use of all three food types for energy is: d) thyroxine
9. The hormone that slows peristalsis and dilates the bronchioles is: c) epinephrine
10. The hormone that has an anti-inflammatory effect is: c) cortisol
11. The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys is: d) ADH
12. The hormone that increases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is: d) PTH
13. The hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys is: a) aldosterone
14. In women, the two hormones that promote growth of blood vessels in the endometrium are: b) estrogen and progesterone
15. In women, the hormone that promotes growth of the corpus luteum is: c) LH
16. The hormone that stimulates milk production in the mammary gland is: d) prolactin
17. The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor is: c) oxytocin
18. The hormone that increases the use of fats and excess amino acids for energy while sparing glucose for use by the brain is: b) cortisol
19. Two hormones that help maintain normal blood pressure by maintaining normal blood volume are: a) ADH and aldosterone
20. Localized hormones that are synthesized from the phospholipids of cell membranes are called: c) prostaglandins
21. Steroid hormones are believed to exert their effect by stimulating the synthesis of: c) proteins
22. The two-messenger mechanism of hormone action describes the action of: d) protein hormones
23. The hormone produced by the ovaries or testes that inhibits the secretion of FSH is: b) inhibin
24. The hormone that brings about sleep is: a) melatonin
25. The hormone that increases excretion of potassium by the kidneys is: b) aldosterone
26. The secretion of insulin in response to fluctuating blood glucose levels is a(n): c) negative feedback mechanism
27. Secretion of the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the: a) hypothalamus
28. The stimulus for secretion of glucagon is: d) hypoglycemia
29. The functions of epinephrine are very similar to the functions of: c) the sympathetic nervous system
30. The stimulus for secretion of aldosterone is: a) low blood sodium level