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Urinalysis (VetTech)

urinalysis notes

What do kidneys do? extract and remove metabolic wast from the blood
Microscopic unit of the kidney is.... nephron
Outer layer ok kidney cortex
Inner layer of kidney medulla
Cortex contains.... Gomerulus Bowman's Capsule PCT DCT
Medulla contains.... Loop of Henle and most of collection tubules
Ureters are capable of.... Peristalsis
Urinary bladder... is a reservoir that contains the urine
Name 3 phases involved in urine production. Filteration Reabsorption Secretion
List the flow of urine from kiidney to out the body. Afferent Arteriole Glomerulus Bowman's Capsule PCT Loop of Henle DCT Large Collecting Duct Renal Pelvis Ureter Excretion
A complete urinalysis evaluates.... 2 things Physical and Chemical Properties
List 4 methods of urine collection. Free Catch Manual Expression Catheterization Cystocentesis
Free Catch.... Easiest method
What kind of sample is the best when using a free catch or manual expression?? Midstream
How is a manual expression performed? animal in lateral recumbency or standing. Palpate the bladder Apply gentle steady pressure.
True or False. Use manual expression on obstructed urethras. False
What are 2 types of catheters used?? Polypropalene Red Rubber
Redirect the needle in the bladder during a cystocentesis is a good idea?? NO
Where is the needle entered in the body of a male dog during a cystocentesis? caudal to the umbilicus and to the side of the sheath of the penis
Where is the needle entered in the body of a female dog and cats during a cystoentesis?? ventral midline caudal to the umbilicus. or aim between the last 2 sets of nipples make and X and aim in the middle
Cystocentesis is the best method for what test?? Urine Culture Sensitivity
What type of tube do you send urine in for a culture or sensitivity?? Red Top Tube
Final report should included what?? Patient information collection technique used date and time collected method of perservation complete urinalysis results
Urinalysis should be performed within.... 30 minutes to an hour of collection
Can it be refigerated?? for how long if you can?? Yes for 6-12 hours
True or False. Always warm refgerated sample to room temperature. True.
What is the impact on the urine sample if it is refigerated? crystals may form and alter specific gravity
What is the impact on urine at room temperature>> cells deteriate rapidly RBC and casts will disintergrate Bacteria will mulitply.
Chemical changes at room temperature include... decrease glucose concentration decrease billiruben concentration
What are the physical properties of urine? Volume Smell Color Transparency
Polyuria increased urine output
Oliguria decreased urine output
Anuria absence of urine
Pollakuria frequent urination
Name factors that affect volume of urine. fluid intake external losses enviromental temperature and humidity amount and type of food level of physical activity size of the animal species
dog normal urine output 20-40 ml/kg/day
Cat normal urine output 20-40 ml/kg/day
cattle normal urine output 17-45 ml/kg/day
Horses normal urine output 3-18 ml/kg/day
Sheep and goats normal urine output 10-40 ml/kg/day
normal urine color yellow to amber
concentrated urine darker
dilute urine lighter
colorless polyuria or low specific gravity
dark yellow to yellow brown oliguria or high specific gravity
yellow brown or green with foam when shaken bile pigments are present
red or red brown presence of RBC or hematuria
brown myoglobin
normal specific gravity for a dog 1.025
Normal specific gravity for a cat 1.030
Normal specific gravity for a horse 1.035
Normal specific gravity for cattle and swine 1.015
Normal specific gravity for sheep 1.30
herbivores have more alkaline urine
Carnivores have more acidic urine
Omnivores have either acidic alkalinic urine
Average normal pH in dog 6-7
average normal pH in cat 6-7
average normal pH in horse 7-8.5
average normal pH in cattle 7-8.5
average normal pH in sheep 6-8.5
Is bilirubin normal?? Yes for dogs and cattle but not for sheep pigs cats and horses
Hematuria RBC in urine
Hemoglobinuria free hemoglobin in urine
Myoglobinuria presence of myoglobin in the urine
piuria pus in urine or excessive WBCs in urine
name 3 types of epithelial cells transitional squamous renal
What do squamous epithelial cells look like? flat thin cells with a homogeneous apperance straight edges with distinct corners the curl or fold
largest cells in urine sediment squamous epithelial cells
What do transitional epithelial cells like? round appear pear shaped or caudate are granular small nucleus larger than WBCs
What do renal epithelial cells look like? usually round nucleus nongranular or finely granular cytoplasma
smallest epithelial cell renal epithelial cells
Name the 3 classes of casts hyaline epithelial cellular granular waxy fatty
Hyaline casts clear colorless cylindrical with parallel sides and usually rounded ends
Granular casts most common type of cast
Leukocyte cast mainly Neutrophils
Erythrocyte cast deep yellowto orange
Waxy cast hyaline cast but wider and square ends gray or colorless
fatty cast common seen in cats
Struvite crystals coffin lids alkaline urine common in dogs and some cats
Amorphous Phosphate crystals alkaline urine often confused with bacteria
Amorphous Urate crystals acidic urine often confused with bacteria
Calcium Carbonate Crystals common in horses and rabbits round with many lines rotating alkaline or neutral from the center also have dumbbell look
Ammonium biurate Crystals acidic alkaline or neutral brown thor apple
calcium oxalate dihydrate X small number seen in dogs and cats
Calcium oxalate monohydrate picket fence antifreeze toxicity
Sulfonamide Crystals round dark less in alkaline
Uric Acid crystals acidic diamond rhomboid yellow yellow/ brown seen in dalmations
Leucine Crystals acidic urine small pincushion yellow or brown liver Dz
Tyrosine crystals acidic dark with needlelike projections liver Dz
cystine crystals acidic flat 6 sides colorless thin renal tubular dysfunction or cystine urolithiasis
Biliruin Crystals acidic rhomboid plates needles granules yellow ruby red dark brown liver dz
Cholesterol Crystals large flat notched
Bacteria cocci or bacilli quivering
cocci round
bacilli rod
Yesast often confused with RBCs or fat droplets rare
Capillaria plica bladderworm of dogs and cats
Dioctophyma renale kidney worm of dogs
Dirofilaria immitis dogs with adult heartworms and circulating microfilaria
Mucus Threads often confused with casts resemble a twisted ribbon
Sperm seen from intact male or recently bred females can produce a false positive for protein
Fat seen to some degree in cats lightly green tinge spherical
lipuria fat in urine
with Sudan III stain fat droplets appear orange or red
Urolith bladder stone or urinary calculi
Urolithiasis occurrence of bladder stones or urinary calculi
Created by: SR17