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Specific Immunity

Immunity results from production of Anitbodies and specialized lymphocytes
4 Types of Acquired Immunity Naturally Acquired Active and Passive Immunity Artificially Acquired Active and Passive Immunity
Naturally Acquired ACTIVE Immunity Immunity resulting from infection and may be long lasting
Naturally Acquired PASSIVE Immunity Antibodies transferred from mother to fetus
Artificially Acquired ACTIVE Immunity From vaccination, may be long lasting
Artificially Acquired PASSIVE Immunity Humoral antibodies, like an antiserum for a snake bite, may last a few weeks.
For every antigen there is only one antibody
Antibodies are very Anitgen specific
Antigens may have multiple determinant groups
Five antibodies IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
IgG Monomer, #1, located in blood/lymph intestines, stimulates phogocytosis, neutralize toxins and virus's, and protect fetus
IgM Pentamer, #3, located Blood/Lymph, B cell surface (monomer), 1st Antibody produced
IgA Dimer, #2, located in body secretions, protect mucosa, initial line of defense
IgD Monomer, located in B cell surface and initiates immune response.
IgE Monomer, lease common, located Mast and basophil surface, reacts to allergies and parasites
1st Antibody produced at the first exposure of the antigen is IgM
Initial line of defense among subsequents exposures is IgA
Most common and crosses the placenta IgG
Benefit of IgM Pentamer allows for more binding (agglutination)
Humoral Immunity antibodies produced by B Cells,
B cells come from Bone marrow stem cells that migrate to lymphoid organs
Apoptosis programmed cell death, machinery is turned off before it is phagocytised. not releasing toxin
Activation of Antibody-Producing Cells B cell activated when antigen rx's with antigen receptor on B cell, B cell produces a clone of plasma & memory cells
Plasma cells secrete antibodies and divide until pathogen is destroyed
Memory cells can recognize pathogens from previous encounters
Memory B Cells result in a faster and effecient immune response the 2nd time around
Primary response = 1st exposure ever, IgM followed by IgG
Secondary, anamnestic, or memory response results in a high anitbody titer, primarily IgG antibody is involved.
Antibody titer amount of antibody in a serum
End of Humoral Immunity Begin T cell and Cell-Mediated immunity
Cell mediated immunity involves lymphocytes called T cells that respond to intracellular antigens
Helper T Cells Release cytokines to activate macrophages, NK cells, and CT T-cells.
Helper T Cells control and coordinate the immune response
T-cells respond to cells with antigenic changes
Cytoxic T-cells release perforin to destroy cell
Regulatory T-cell suppress other T cells, allows control of immune response
Types of Cytokines Interleukins, Interferons, and Chemokines
Interleukins Cytokines that serve as communicators between leukocytes
Interferons Cytokines that protect against viruses = Alpha, Beta, Gamma
IL-1 Stimulates helper t cells, attracts phagocytosis
IL-2 proliferation of T and B cells
IL-8 initiates positive chemotaxis to site
IL-12 Stimulates differentiation of T-cells
Alpha and Beta Interferons antiviral, halts protein synthesis in infected cells
Gamma Interferon Activates macrophages = increased phagocytosis
Tumor Necrosis Factor Cytotoxic to tumor cells, increase phagocytosis
Helper T cell = #1 production of cytokines
Opsonization coating an antigen with antibodies to flad it and start phagocytosis
Helper T cells = Effector Cells has no direct role in immunity- it directs other cells on what to do.
Helper T cells activate B cells
NK (Natural Killer Cells) lyse viral-infected and tumor cells
T cells mature and differentiate in the thymus gland
Created by: wevarela