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A&P 2

Final Exam

Functions of Urinary System excretion, elimination, and homeostatic regulation
3 parts of excretion Urea, creatinine, and uric acid
urea from breakdown of amino acids
creatinine from breakdown of creatine phosphate (energy)
uric acid from breakdown of nucleic acid nitrogenous bases
elimination discharge of wastes into the environment
homeostatic regulation (6 parts) regulation of blood glucose, blood pH, ions in blood, blood pressure, blood volume, and production of hormones
ions in blood calcium, phosphorous, sodium
how blood pH is regulated kidneys excrete H+ ions (acidic), conserve bicarbonate ions
how blood volume is regulated kidneys can eliminate or conserve water
how blood pressure is regulated kidneys use hormones called Renin (increase BP)
types of hormones produced for homeostatic regulation calcitriol (active Vit D) and Erythropoietin (production of RBCs)
regions of kindeys cortex, medulla, and pelvis
cortex is made up of... renal corpuscles
renal corpuscles glomerulus and glomerular capsule (part of nephron)
cortex function filtration of blood
medulla is made up of... renal tubules
medulla function reabsorption (filtrate and water back to blood) and secretion (water and filtrate dumped into kidney tubule from blood)
pelvis is made up of... minor and major calyx
pelvis function excretion
flow of urinary system filtration, reabsorption, secretion
glomerular filtration rate volume of filtrate formed by all glomeruli in one minute
glomerular filtration rate is proportional to... net filtration pressure
How we get net filtration pressure... Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure force driving smaller molecules through filtration membrane
2 forces opposing Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure colloid osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure
colloid osmotic pressure created by larger molecules still in blood, forces fluid/water back into blood (osmotic gradient)
capsular hydrostatic pressure pressure created by newly formed filtrate
increase colloid osmotic pressure= decreasee net filtration pressure=decreased glomerular filtration rate
average glomerular filtration rate for males and females males=125 ml, females=105 ml
tubular reabsorption as soon as filtrate enters proximal convoluted tubule reabsorption occurs and 99% of filtrate is absorbed. both passive and active processes occur
2 types of blood vessels surrounding renal tubules vasa recta and paratubular capillaries
ways molecules are transported through membrane during reabsorption facilitated diffusion and active transport
facilitated diffusion uses carrier proteins, substances move based on concentration gradient, no ATP needed (AKA uniport)
Active Transport moves molecules against concentration gradient using ATP or gradient of another molecule,
Two types of active transport Cotransport(symport)=two molecules in same direction and Counter transport(antiport)=two molecules in opposite directions
Transport Maximum (Saturation) how much can be absorbed of a substance
What happens when you reach or exceed saturation/Tm? substance spills into urine
Renal Threshold plasma concentration at which a substance will start appearing in urine
tubular secretion substances move from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubules
how are substances secreted? active transport-countercurrent mechanism:substances flow in opposite direction through adjacent channels.
tubular secretion sets up for... osmotic gradient which allows tubules to vary the urine concentration
osmotic diuretic substance that is not completely reabsorbed and carries water out with it. urine output will increase
regulation of glomerular filtration intrinsic control and extrinsic control
types of intrincsic control in nephrom myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular mechanism
myogenic mechanism afferent arterioles constrict or dilate in response to blood pressure
constrict decrease glomerular filtration rate=higher BP -flow of blood into glomerulus drops
dilate increase glomerular filtration rate=lower BP -flow of blood into glomerulus increases
types of extrinsic control neural and hormonal
neural extrinsic control nerve impulses sent to nephrons
types of neural extrinsic control sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic afferent arteriole constricts when nerve impulses are sent here (decreases glomerular filtration rate)
parasympathetic afferent arterioles dilate when nerve impulses are sent here (increases glomerular filtration rate)
Created by: twestrick