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Nutrition WK4 CH9

water balance

Body water compartments Dynamic systems within the body Intracellular or extracellular
Particles in the water solution Determine all internal shifts and balances between compartments
Body’s state of dynamic balance Capacity of the body to maintain life systems despite what enters the system from outside; Homeostatic mechanisms protect the body’s water supply
Solvent Basic liquid solvent for all chemical processes within the body
Transport Nutrients carried through the body in water-based fluids (e.g., blood, secretions, synovial joint fluid, vaginal fluid)
Thermoregulation sweating – keeps us cool Maintains stable body temperature
Body lubricant vag secretions, synovial fluid
Surrounding environment Body water is lost as sweat and must be replaced – vomiting, watery diarrhea; more active or sicker we sweat
Functional losses Disease process affects water requirements
water requirements - Metabolic needs 1000 ml of water necessary for every 1000 kcal in the diet
water requirements by Age Infants need 700 to 800 ml of water per day Adult men need 2900 ml of liquids per day – approx 12 cups Adult women need 2200 ml of liquids per day – approx 9 cups
Dehydration >2% total body weight loss (clinical dehydration) Special concern in the elderly – muscle wasting and low food consumption; chronic disease so usually on a diuretic Alcohol and caffeine are diuretics – can't count towards intake
Water intoxication Those at risk: Infants – can happen when they're sick; when use too much water in formula Psychiatric patients – don't have a constant memory; can't tell you what they've dLSone Patients on psychotropic drugs – LSD, Xtasy – recreational drugs (not a pr
Extracellular fluid Total body water outside cells One quarter of extracellular fluid is blood plasma
Interstitial fluid Fluid surrounding cells in tissues
Intracellular fluid Total body water inside the cells Twice the volume of that outside the cells
Overall water balance Average adult metabolizes 2.5 to 3 L of water/day Know blood ¼ of extracelluar is plasma, interstitial fluid, secretions
Water output Obligatory water loss Leaves the body through kidneys, skin, lungs, and feces Optional water loss Varies according to climate and physical activity
Electrolytes Small, inorganic substances that break apart in a solution and carry an electrical charge (ions); Vary accordingly to Body temp, activity level, age, diuretics
Plasma Proteins Mainly albumin and globulin Not charged; plasma can't freely move across a cellular membrane – allows to be maintained in blood vessels; Collaids is another name for blood plasma
colloidal osmotic pressure guard blood volume
Capillary membrane Thin and porous; Water molecules move freely across them
Cell membrane Thicker membranes (built like a sandwich) Have penetrating channels of protein Constructed to protect and nourish cell contents
Osmosis water movement from low to high; Process or force that impels water molecules to move throughout body; Moves water molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
Diffusion particles moving from high to low Force by which particles in solution move outward in all directions from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Filtration Water is forced through membrane pores when pressure outside the membrane is different
Active transport Necessary to carry particles “upstream” across separating membranes
Pinocytosis (means cell drinking) Larger molecules attach to thicker cell membrane, then are engulfed by cell
Capillary Fluid Shift Mechanism Cells’ water and nutrients must move from capillaries to cells. Water and cell metabolites must return to capillaries. Uses opposing fluid pressures: Hydrostatic pressure Colloidal osmotic pressure
Gastrointestinal circulation Water separated from blood plasma is continually secreted into the gastrointestinal tract.
isotonicity equal osmotic pressure – d/t equal concentration of electrolytes and water
Renal circulation Kidney “laundering” of the blood helps maintain water balance and proper solution of blood
Hormonal controls Antidiuretic hormone mechanism Aldosterone mechanism
Antidiuretic hormone mechanism anti-pee; induces the reabsorption of water
Aldosterone mechanism produced by the adrenal glands – triggers the kidneys to reabsorb sodium – works w/ ADH
Acid more hydrogen ions; pH stands for “power of hydrogen” Acidity value <7.35 Neutral value = 7
Acid-Base Buffer System Handles an excess of acid or base Mixture of acid and base that protects a solution from wide variations in pH Main buffer system: carbonic acid/base bicarbonate
how much of the human body is made up of water? 50-60%
Created by: MarieG
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