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Nutrition Wk4 Ch8

Classes of body minerals Major minerals (>100 mg/day) Trace elements (<100 mg/day)
Mineral metabolism Digestion Absorption Transport
Major Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Potassium Chloride Magnesium Sulfur
Calcium functions Bone and tooth formation Blood clotting - fibrin Muscle and nerve action Metabolic reactions
calcium requirements 1000 mg/day – rarely get enough
calcium deficiency Osteoporosis – smoking increases
calcium toxicity too much can lead to kidney stones
calcium food sources Milk is the major food source Green vegetables, fish with bones, fortified food; broccoli and kale
Phosphorus functions Bone and tooth formation Energy metabolism Acid-base balance
Phosphorus requirements 700 mg/day
Phosphorus food sources Milk, milk products, fish, eggs
Sodium functions Water balance – prevents dehydration Acid-base balance Muscle action – transmit nerve impulses to contract muscles Nutrient absorption – assists w/ glucose transporters (sodium dependent glucose transmitters
Sodium requirements AI: 1.5 g/day UL: 2.3 g/day
sodium deficiency if you sweat excessively-amt is diminished; not enough causes heavy cramping
sodium toxicity sensitivity and hypertension; edema (esp in lower extrem)
sodium food sources Table salt, cured meat, canned soups, processed food
Potassium functions Water balance Metabolic reactions Muscle action – esp important to heart muscle Insulin release Blood pressure – d/t sodium-potassium balance
potassium requirements AI: 4.7 g/day
potassium deficiency diarrhea, vomiting, surgery, od on diuretics (many are non-potassium sparing); if you run and don't get enough water
Potassium toxicity fatal arythmias causing miocardial infarction
potassium food sources Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fresh meats
Chloride functions Digestion Key element in hydrochloric acid secretion Respiration – neccesary for life – help RBC move carbon dioxide to be released from body
chloride requirements AI: 2.3 g/day
chloride deficiency vomiting, dehydration; metabolic alkalosis
chloride food sources Table salt (sodium chloride)
Magnesium functions found in every body cell; General metabolism Protein synthesis Muscle action Basal metabolic rate
magnesium requirements 300 to 400 mg/day
macnesium deficiency sx rare, except in clinical states of starvation b/c of disease or surgery that is taking place; diabetes, kidney disease, alcholism, htn, muscle cramps and weakness
magnesium toxicity renal pts greatest risk
magnesium food sources Nuts, soybeans, cocoa, seafood, peas, green vegetables, whole grains
Sulfur functions known as keratin Helps transfer energy to tissue Found in many vits Hair, skin, and nails General metabolic functions Vitamin structure Collagen structure
sulfur requirements Not stated – should never have to take a supplement
sulfur food sources Meat, nuts, soy, fish, cheese, eggs
Trace Elements Iron – syn. Hemaglobin; RBC; anemia (2bil people anemic) Iodine, Zinc, Selenium, Fluoride, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Boron, Vanadium, Nickel
iron functions Hemoglobin synthesis General metabolism
iron requirements 8 to 11 mg/day for males 8 to 18 mg/day for females
iron deficiency Anemia
iron toxicity sm doses nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; 1 lg dose can kill you
iron food sources red meat, eggs, soy beans, spinach
iodine functions Participation in thyroid gland’s synthesis of thyroxine (controls basal metabolic rate)
iron requirements 150 mcg/day
iron deficiency Goiter – common b4 iodized salt Cretinism – mrd, dwarfism (def in iodine during preg) Hypothyroidism – wt gain, bad thin and corse hair Hyperthyroidism – rapid wt loss, tremors, graves disease
iodine food sources Iodized table salt, seafood
zinc functions males need more than females StabIizes insulin storage in pancreas Wound healing Taste and smell ability Enzyme constituent Immune system
zinc requirements 11 mg/day for males 8 mg/day for females
zinc deficiency Poor wound healing Impaired taste and smell Need during preg and lactation; infancy and adolescence Lowest intake during 1-3, adolescent females, people older than 71; hypogeusia (lack of taste) hyposmia (impaired smell)
hypogeusia lack of taste
hyposmia impaired smell
zinc toxicity nausea, vomiting
zinc food sources Meat, seafood, legumes, whole grains
selenium functions Aids in protection from free radicals Works w/ protein as an antioxidant Works w/ thyroid funtion (risk for thyroid cancer)
selenium requirements RDA: 55 mcg/day
selenium toxicity GI, brittle hair/nails; rash, if everything smells like garlic – od in selenium
selenium food sources Seafood, kidney, liver; depends on soil content
Fluoride functions preventing tooth caries
copper function Known as “Iron twin” - same funtion (hemoglobin syn. And energy production)
Chromium Previously thought to reduce insulin resistance – recent studies show no effect
Manganese Inhalation toxicity when mining
mineral supplementation Life cycle needs Pregnancy and lactation Adolescence Adulthood Clinical needs Iron-deficiency anemia Zinc deficiency
Created by: MarieG