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Unit 5 Diuretics


Adverse Effects of all diuretics. Renal failure, dehydration, hypotension, dizziness, GI distress (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
Contraindication for all diuretics. Complete renal failure (Caution with renal injury).
Teaching points for all diuretics. Take in morning. Monitor serum potassium levels. Careful with potassium supplements and potassium rich foods. Diabetics should monitor blood sugar more closely. Change positions slowly. Monitor weight daily.
3 functions of diuretic agents. Increase urine production. Increase sodium excretion. Block re-absorption of sodium.
Indications for diuretic use. Heart failure, pulmonary edema, edema, liver disease, renal disease, hypertension, hyperkalemia.
Symptoms of heart failure Tiredness/fatigue, shortness of breath/coughing, pulmonary edema, weakend pumping action of the heart, pleural effusion, swelling in the abdomen, swelling in the ankles and legs.
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like diuretics PROTOTYPE: Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydro Diuril)
Thiazide's MOA Hydrochlorothiazide retains sodium in the distal tubule.
Thiazide's Indications Hydrochlorothiazide is indicated for hypertension and mild to moderate heart failure.
Thiazide's adverse effects Hypokalemia, hyperglycemia (diabetics), hyponatremia.
Thiazide Contraindications/Cautions Diabetes, Gout, hypokalemia, dehydration and kidney failure.
Thiazide (Hydrochlorothiazide) interactions Digoxin.
Loop Diuretics PROTOTYPE: furosemide (Lasix)
Loop Diuretics MOA. furosemide (Lasix) retain sodium and chloride in the ascending loop of henle.
Loop Diuretics indication furosemide (Lasix) are indicated for hypertension, heart failure and edema that is not responding to thiazides.
Loop diuretics adverse effects. hypokalemia
Loop diuretics (furosemide, Lasix) contraindications/cautions Hypokalemia, Gout, Dehydration, Kidney Failure
Loop Diuretics (furosemide, Lasix) interactions NSAIDs (prostaglandin blocking decreases renal blood flow) Aminoglycosides Digoxin Lithium
Potassium-sparing diuretics PROTOTYPE: spironolactone (Aldactone)
Potassium-sparing diuretics MOA spironolactone (Aldactone) Antagonizes aldosterone causing a loss of sodium but retention of potassium in the collecting duct.
Potassium-sparing diuretics indication. spironolactone (Aldactone) is indicated for patients at risk for hypokalemia.
Potassium-sparing diuretics adverse effects Hyperkalemia
Potassium-sparing diuretics contraindications/cautions Hyperkalemia, dehydration, kidney failure.
Potassium-sparing diuretics drug interactions. ACE inhibitors, potassium supplements, NSAIDs
Osmotic Diuretics PROTOTYPE: mannitol (Osmitrol)
Osmotic Diuretics Indications mannitol (Osmitrol) is indicated only for intercranial pressure and sever fluid over load. It is administered only IV typically in emergent/ICU settings.
Osmotic Diuretics MOA Pulls water into the proximal tubule without sodium loss, increases osmotic pressure in the tubule.
Osmotic Diuretics Adverse Effects hypotension, dizziness, confusion, headache, nausea, vomiting
Osmotic Diuretics Contraindications/Cautions Intracranial bleeding, Dehydration/kidney failure
Created by: npeters519