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*Microbiology Exam 2

For Spring 2011 exam 2 study guide

T/F: The bacteria that causes pneumonia has a spiral shape morphology. False
Which of these is not a symtptom of pneumonia? shortness of breath, dicolored sputum, polyuria, or abdominal pains polyuria
Which of these people is more likely to be infected of pneumonia? a 24 yr old woman with healthy diet, a teenager living in Hawaii, an infant in SW US, or elderly/terminally ill person an elderly or terminally ill person
T/F: Typhoid Fever is MOST common in the United States. False
Typhoid Fever could be______. completely asymptomatic, contracted by comsuming shellfish from polluted water, gram-negative enteric bacillus, or all of the above all of the above
How is S. typhi identified or diagnosed? through Gram Stain
T/F: the type of organism that causes candidiasis is a fungus/yeast. True
Which of these is NOT a symptom of a vaginal yeast infection? itching, white/gray discharge, burning urination, swelling of joints swelling of joints
Who is more likely a susceptible candidate for a vaginal yeast infection? pregnant women, women with lukemia, women with diabetes, all of the above all of the above
T/F: Most HIV positive people are susceptible host. True
All of the following are true about Cryptococcus neoformans except: found in soil, more common in women that men, has ability to grow in 37 degrees Celcius, can cause shortness of breath It is more common in women that men
Cryptococcus neoform is: contagious, found in humans and birds, associated with bird droppings, deadly associated with bird droppings
T/F: Cysticercosis is very common in the United States. False
All the following are true about Cysticercosis except: may obstruct intestines, may cause blindness, may cause seizures, highly contagious, all of the above are true highly contagious
Taenia solium is classified as a(n): virus, bacterium, helminthes, algea, fungi Helminthes
T/F: The pinworm is more common in adults than children False
Female pinworm have: pointed/curved/rounded posterior ends. pointed posterior ends
What is the best way to prevent pinworms? get rid of your children, oral vitamins, good hygeine and hand washing good hygeine and hand washing
T/F: Cryptosporidiosis is an intestinal illness. True
All of the following are true about Cryptosporidiosis except: diagnose in stool samples, no consistently effective treatment, diarrheal disease, lives in Esophagus of infected host Crypto lives in the Esophagus of the infected human or animal
Cryptosporidiosis is: parasitic disease, intestinal infection, characterized by severe watery diarrhea, all of the above all of the above
T/F: Giardia lamblia has two forms, a cyst and a trophozoite. True
The group with the highest rate for infection of Giardia is: Children ages 1-2 who are not toilet trained
Giardia lamblia is categorized as a: Protozoa
T/F: Poliomyelitis may or may not lead to flaccid paralysis. True
Poliomyelitis is a(n): Enterovirus
The primary route of transmission of poliomyelitis is: fecal-oral route
T/F: Smallpox is more common in winter True
Which of the following is not a symptom of smallpox: fever, rash, chills, hair loss hair loss
What are the routes of entry of smallpox respiratory
no nucleus, lack membrane bound organelles, unicellular organism, average size is 1;2 micrometers, asexual/binary fission, have cell walls made out of peptidoglycan; most are chemoheterotrophic/ few pathogenic prokaryotic cells
Cell walls of Eukaryotic cells do not contain peptidoglycan
Organelles are only found in Eukaryotic cells
contains chromosomes/ number depends on organism nucleus
transport network ER
membrane formation and secretion golgi complex
digestive enzymes lysosome
brings food into cells and provides support vacuoles
cellular respiration mitochondrion
photosynthesis chloroplast2
oxidation of fatty acids; destroys H2O peroxisome
divides the agar plate into four quadrants and streaks mixed broth into each quadrant so that individual colonies can form isolation technique
This test is used in a clinical setting to help find out the sensitivity of organism to medicine and th effects it willhave on the patient Kirby Bauer test/culture and sensitivity test
consist of partially acid-hydrolyzed beef protein, called peptone; nonselective medium nutrient agar/broth
allows growth of Gram positive bacteria PEA- phenylethyl alcohol agar
allows growth of Gram negative bacteria DEA-desoxycholate lactose agar
used in isolation technique TSA-triptic soy agar
this is when an inoculum (a small number of bacteria from an original sample) is introduced into or on a sterile medium inoculate
a group of bacteria growing on a single spot on solid media that arose from a single bacterial cell colony
grown onto another growth medium to provide sufficient quantity of pure culture for identification sub-culture
technique used for isolating different bacterial species from a mixed culture streak plate
used for identification and testing of bacteria after growing from a streak plate pure culture
The treatment of disease by the use of chemical substances chemotherapy
compound used to treat infectious disease antimicrobial drugs
antimicrobial agent that is produced naturally by an organism antibiotic
any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth antibacterial drugs
drugs that destroy fungus or inhibits their growth antifungal
Bible of bacteriology; a systemic approach of identifying prokaryotes Bergey's Manual
What are the parameters/test to classify bacteria? gram stain, O2 requirement, morphology, and biochemical test
the 4 divisions used to classify prokaryotes Div I- gram neg; Div II- gram pos; Div III- mycoplasma (no gram stain); Div IV- Archaebacteria (no gram stain)
What kingdom are procaryotic organisms classified? Monera
What domain are procaryotic organisms classified? Bacteria and Archae
bacteria with gram negative cell walls; facultative and anearobic rods; includes E. coli, Salmonella (typhoid fever), Enterobacter, and Yersinia (plague) Bacteria Family Enterobacteriaceae
Bacteria with gram positive cell walls; common disease causing in humans,Cocci in clusters;includes Staphylococcus (causes boils/skin infections) Bacteria Family Micrococcaceae
Bacteria with gram positive cell walls; common disease causing in humans,Cocci in pairs; includes Steptococcus (cause strep throat) Bacteria Family Streptococcaceae
Bacteria with gram positive cell walls; non spore forming rods; common disease causing in humans; gram stains poorly; includes Mycobacterium (TB/leprosy) Bacteria Family Mycobacteriaceae
Bacteria with no cell walls; includes Mycoplasma (pnemonia); Ureaplasma (urinary infection) Bacteria Family Mycoplamataceae
Bacteria with gram negative cell wall; transmitted by vector; includes Rickettsia (Rocky Mountain spotten fever), and Coxiella (Q fever) Bacteria Family Rickettsiaceae
Bacteria with gram negative cell wall; transmitted by direct contact; includes: Chlamydia (Sexually transmitted infection) Bacteria Family Chlamydiceae
associated with extreme environments, unique cell walls, unique internal structure, has been found in hot springs and high salt areas Archae Bacteria
the study of fungi mycology
cell wall made out of sugar type (manose/manin) Fungi
Is domain fungi Aerobic or facultative anaerobic (both), chemoheterotrophic or not, a decomposer or not? both, chemoheterotrophic, decomposer
need to perform energy and carbon source Chemoheterotrophic
what are the nutritional adaptation of fungi? (7) grown in PH5, almost all are aerobic, most yeast are facultative anaerobes, can grow in sugary/salty environment, grow in low moisture, require less nitrogen than bacteria, can metabolize lignin
Fungal disease of outer epidermic superficial, yeast feeds on high oil content
fungal disease of epidermis, hair and dermis ringworm
fungal disease of mucous membranes affect skin, nails (yeast infection)
fungal disease of systemic mycoses deep within body organs/tissue
fungal disease of opportunistic mycoses caused by fungi that are normally found in host
Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are ____ at 37 degrees Celcius and ____ at 25 degrees Celcius yeast like, moldlike
multicellular organism with distinct morphology; aerobic (fungi) molds
unicellular fungi-facultative anaerobic yeast
What are the economic effects of fungi? antibiotic production, cheese/wine/beer and bread making
symbiotic relationship with soil formation; mutualistic combination of an alga and fungus Lichens
Kingdom Protista Domain Eukarya Algae
unicellular, filamentous or multicellular; most are photoautotrophs Algae
What type of algae is multicellular,harvested for algin, used as thickner in industry and for iodine? Brown algea
used for thickner in yogurt/icecream, multicellular, and harvested for agar and carrageenan red algea
unicellular or multicellular, gives rise to plants Green algae
snowflake looking, unicellular, store oil, fossilized diatoms formed in oil (fossil fuels) Diatoms algae
unicellular, some are symboints in marine animals, neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, known for red tides Dinoflagellates algae
Kingdom Protista Domain Eukarya; unicellular, chemoheterotrophs, asexual Protozoa
How is protozoa divided? by how they move
Name the divisions of protozoa and how they move Mastigophora-flagellated; Sarcodina (Amoebas)-pseudopods; Ciliophora-ciliated, Apicomplexa-nonmotile
Eukaryotic, multicellular, chemoheterotrophic under kingdom animalia Helminths
Name the two Phylum of Helminths Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and Nematodes (roundworms)
Name the classes under flatworm helminthes Trematodes and cestodes (tapeworms)
host that harbors the parasite for a temporary time period intermediate
host that lets the parasite reproduce definitive
What Kingdom does Arthropods fall in? Animalia
What is the role of Arthropods as vectors? they help transmit diseases such as Lyme disease and malaria
Name some examples of Arthropod Insecta? 6 legs-lice, fleas, mosquitos
Name some examples of Arthropod Arachinida? 8 legs- mites, ticks
Differentiate between a virus and a bacterium. Bacteria is alive and virus is not
Every virus is comprised of some sort of ___ and most have___. Some are __ and others are ___. Nucleic acid, capsid, naked, enveloped
protective outer shell that surrounds viral nucleic acid Capsid
two shapes of capsid are helical or icosahedral
structure is more intricate than helical and icosahedral virus complex virus
what is the overview of viral multiplication adsoption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release
oncogenic effect of virus transformation
rectivated viral infection chronic latent state
damage to host cell due to a viral infection cytopathic effects
inclusion bodies and syncytia persistent viral infection
protein particle with no nucleic acid, no envelope, no capsid prions
plant pathogen, 1/10 the size of viruses, naked strands of RNA, no capsid Viroids
Created by: caramelkandie26