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*Djoanna Workshop 3*

Study guide for Spring 2011 Microbiology class

a pathogenic microorganism has entered the body Infected
Do all infections cause disease? No
permanently colonize in specific locations of the body but do not cause disease normal microbiota
is in the body for days, weeks, or months but eventually disappears transient microbiota
Normal microbiota contribute to nonspecific defenses of the host by feeding on the waste of cells and getting rid of dead cells
Briefly describe the 3 types of symbiotic relationships. Commensalism: one organism benifits while the other organism is unaffected mutualism: both organisms benifit parasitism: when one organism benifits while harming the other
What is an opportunistic infection? when disease happens due to conditions of the body changing and pathogen is able to thrive
Briefly discuss Typhoid Mary's condition using terms described in lecture. Her condition was infecting the people she worked for and causing disease. At this point the pathogen had commensalism symbiosis relationship with her.
How the disease is caused Etiology
The Etiology of syphilis is spirochette Treponema pallidum
How does Robert Koch fit into the topic of Etiology? He came up with Scientific method which led to experiments leading up to cures of diseases.
How the person is feeling symptoms
observable traits of what the pathogen is doing to the body signs
disease that can be spread communicable disease
diseae that cannot be spread noncommunicable disease
Give examples of the following infectious diseases: -sporadic -endemic -epidemic -pandemic -emerging -TB -Flu -AIDS -TB -Buobonic plague
What are primary and secondary infections? Primary infection is when a pathogen gets inside the body. Secondary infection happens when the immune system has been weakened by the primary infection and allows more pathogen to infect the body.
Distinguish between local, focal, and systemic infection. -happens in one are of the body -when microorganism are spread throughout the body through blood -when local infection spreads to other parts of the body through blood/lymph
Distinguish between bacteremia, septicemia, toxemia, and viremia. -when blood has bacteria in it -when the bacteria in blood is multiplying quickly -when blood contains toxins -when virus is found in the blood
List 3 major catergories of pathogen reservoirs and at least 2 examples of disease of each. -Human: AIDS and Hepatitis -Animal: Rabies and Flu -Nonliving: pathogenic fungi and pastrointestinal disorder
List 3 major ways pathogens are trasferred from reservior to host. Contact, vehicle and vector
What are the most common portals of exit? How does this term relate to disease transmission respiratory and gastrointestinal tract; related to part of body infected
What is nasocomial infection and describe why it is so prevalent? What is the most common infection? -infection acquired during hospital stay; they are so prevalent because the patient's body is already weakened and the infection is already present in the hospital; UTI
How can microbes enter the host? What is the most common portal of entry? Mucous membranes and break in skin; most common is through GI or repiratory tract
How is the parenteral route different from entering through the skin? the skin or mucous membranes are penetrated
used for expressing the virulence or potency of a microbe or its toxin represents lethal dose for 50% of hosts LD50
does required to produce a demonstrable infection in 50% of the hosts ID50
What features of bacteria contribute to adherence to the host cell? Adhesions or ligands
What features allows the pathogen to penetrate host defenses? Capsules and components of cell wall
List enzymes secreted by bacteria to promote healthy colonization of the pathogen in the host. leukocidins, hemolysins, coagulases, kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase
What are the first line defenses? skin and the mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
What are the second line defenses? cells (phagocytes), antimicrobial chemicals, and processes (inflamation, fever)
What are the third line defenses? specfic immunity
What are the 3 barriers that comprise the first line defenses? Know examples. Anatomical/physical (skin); Chemical (tears); genetic (level of sensitivity)
defenses against any pathogen nonspecific resistance
What is the role of the skin and mucous membrane in nonspecific resistance? Skin and the mucuos membrane is a physical barrier from the pathogen
removes debris from the lungs through the cilia ciliary escalator
Differentiate between mechanical and chemical factors as they relate to nonspecific defenses, and list several examples. Surveillance of the body; recognition of foreign material, and destruction (including WBC)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How does normal microbiota contribute to non-specific defenses? It keeps a balanced environment for the pathogens helping the body.
What is the role of white blood cells in the body? It will recognize microbes and will get rid of it
What are the 5 major types of white blood cells? Neutrophiles, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, and Monocytes
What are the 4 major systems that help the body? Reticuloendothelial system (RES), Extracellular fluids system (ECF), Blood and circulatory, and Lympathic
What is the lympathic system? Part of the immune sytem that transports lymph
What are the parts of the lumpathic system? Describe each of those parts. Fluids-plasma like fluid;Vessels-parallel to blood system & returns lymph to blood system;lymph nodes- filters lymph; spleen-filters blood; thymus-releases T-cells in embryo and supply mature T-cells for adults; GALT AND MALT- recognize microbes from food
What are four major processes involved in non-specific immunity? inflammation, phagocytosis, interferon, and complement
What is inflammation? redness, warmth, swelling, pain, and loss of function
List the stages and characteristics of inflammation. vascular changes, edema, and fever
Describe the cause and effects of fever. it is caused by pyrogens; it inhibits microbe and viral multiplication
What is phagocyte and phagocytosis? phagocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages; phagocytosis attacks foreign debris and ingest them
What are the mechanisms involved in phagocytosis? Chemotaxis, Ingestion, Phagolysosome, and Destruction
Differentiate between lysosome and lysozymes. Lysosomes_____________________________________ Lysozymes_____________________________________
What is interferon? And what is its role in non-specific immunity? Synthesized by WBC and Tissue cells under attack; it is not virus specific
What is the process known as complement? it helps with immunity and helps fight of bacteria and viruses through breakdown of proteins
What are the stages of complement activation? initiation, amplification and cascade, polymerization, and membrane attack
Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. innate gives immediate defense to the host while acquired gives defense against the pathogen for life and is triggered by the innate immunity
Differentiate between immunity and nonspecific resistance. immunity is activated by the pathogen while nonspecific resistance is in the body when it is normal
What are the characteristics of B cells? it is an antibody that can morph in to plasma cells
responds and attacks antigens antibody
a toxin in the body antigen
When cells recognize to clone or delete themselves as a response to immunity by B and T cells clonal selection
Explain how antibody reacts with an antigen; identify the consequences of the reaction. opsonization, agglutination, neutralization, and complement fixation.
Distinguish between a primary and secondary immune response. Primary- first exposure; Secondary-re-exposure and now have memory cells that can produce antibodies quickly
Contrast the four types of acquired immunity and know examples of each. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What are the characteristics of T cells. direct involvement of T cells, produce and react to cytokines, activated simultaneously with B cells, and have unique CD receptors
Type I happens in seconds to minutes and includes most cells
Type II happens in minutes to hours and includes RBC
Type III happens in several hours and includes neutrophils
Type IV happens in days and includes activated T cells
Briefly describe T cell activation Cell mediated-immunity, antigen presenting cells, and transformation
Created by: caramelkandie26