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FOS 3042, Final Exam

Flash Cards for Final Exam

Which would not be an example of a processed food developed with the aid of technology Fresh Peas
Is this statement false: Food science is the mass production of food products from raw animal and plant material utilizing the principles of engineering. Yes
This early example of the use of technology would have been practiced long before canning was developed. Smoking fish
Which is an example of the relationship of chemistry to food science? The fact that fruits and vegs contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Monousaturated fatty acid oxidation.
In understanding the processing of food via deep-fat frying knowledge of _________ is critical. heat and mass transfer
The manufacture of an HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) sweetened soft drink involves the _________ processing industry. Beverage and corn
research into the change in green color intensity of canned and stored peas represents what type of study? chemical
this food scientist/technologist work area involves sampling raw products to ensure conformity to purchasing specifications quality control
which sequence most accurately represents the scientific method? problem>hypothesis>experiment>conclusion
is this statement false regarding nutraceuticals? all potential nutraceuticals food substances are known
which organelle, present in a plant cell but not an animal cell, affects tissue structure? cell wall
Which statement is accurate regarding the milk typically served for breakfast? It has received homogenization and pasteurization processing.
Which practice, characterized by crop rotation, applied genetics, and the use of fertilizers,aided the development of the food industry? Scientific Agriculture
Food adulteration is related to all of the following except: reduced profitability
Who is responsible for early canning techniques? Nicholas Appert
In Australia during the late 1800s, which new technology was behind the success of the serving of meat and fish entrées that had been stored for several months? Refrigeration
Which branch of food science focuses on the functional properties of proteins? Food Chemistry
Which statement regarding phytochemicals is true? Certain phytochemicals can produce toxic symptoms
Food composition Varies between food groups
Which is not a group from the Food Guide Pyramid? Food ingredients and additives
The average percentage of iron absorbed is higher for beef than for spinach, which is an illustration of: bioavailability
Which would not cause a loss in quality? Trimethylamine oxide
Which statement regarding nutrient density is most accurate? Carrots and cantaloupes are roughly equivilant
Which statement regarding collagen is most accurate Collagen's physical structure and ability to form crosslinks contribute to toughness
Cheese can be manufactured when milk proteins reach their isoelectric point.
Regarding the Standards of Identity for milk products, MSNF is greater in canned evaporated milk than for fluid milks.
How is margarine different from butter? Margarine potentially has a higher unsaturated fat content.
Foods manufactured with added HVP Contain essential amino acids
Which is not a major mineral? Iron
If an olestra molecule could be exzymatically digested, approximately how many calories would it provide, assuming each of its six fatty acids was a long-chain fatty acid? 58
Which is true regarding food labels? "Nutrition Facts" contains information on fiber content
Which statement about metabolic reactions is false? Anabolic reactions are important during digestion of a meal
Which sweetener statement is correct? Aspartame provides 4 kcal/gram of energy
Which provides the most kcal per gram? omega-3 fatty acid
Which organ produces a starch-digesting enzyme and releases it into the small intestine? pancreas
Phosphate salts promote oxygen uptake in ________ muscle
Drinking water or milk is not a good source of the following mineral Iron
Which is not a key function of water? Provides energy
Which antioxidant vitamin helps to absorb iron? Vitamin C
Which of the following nutrients are absorbed into the intestinal cells by simple diffusion? Small fatty acids
Proteases can catabolize all of the following except: diglycerides
A deficiency of energy or nutrients is called undernutrition
Which carbohydrate does not contribute as a source for blood glucose? Cellulose
Insoluble fibers, including cellulose, are thought to Relieve constipation and other colonic disorders by increasing fecal bulk(mass and weight)
The neutralization of an acid by a base is most closely related to titration
Which one is not a food acid ethyl acetate
__________ acid is an acid that can donate two hydrogens Fumaric
An atom of ________________ contains two oxygens covalently bonded to carbon carbon dioxide
Which element from the periodic table is not yet considered an essential dietary mineral Br
CH3COOH is the chemical formula for acetic acid
The carbon-to-carbon bonds in food molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins,fats, and vitamins are examples of covalent bonds
When amino acids bond to form peptides, this is an example of a _____________ reaction. composition
What is required for an exzymatic reaction to go to completion? Decrease in activation energy, presence of substrate, presence of enzyme, formation of ES complex. (all the above)
When oxygen is added to, or hydrogen or electrons are removed from, food molecules in an exzymatic reaction, Enzymatic oxidation occurs
Which food molecule is most prone to addition reactions unsaturated fatty acid
Ascorbic acid functions as _______________ because it causes other substances to become reduced while it becomes oxidized in chemical reactions. Reducing agent
What is false regarding functional groups? They are arrangements of between 6-12 atoms in a single structure
Which is not a functional property of water? hygroscopicity
What is incorrect regarding water activity? In general, as water activity increases, food stability increases
What is not a functional property of food acids? Gain protons
What is not true regarding the ionization of fumaric acid, C4H4O,: Produces OH (hydroxide) ions
In acting as a ______________ in dough, fumaric acid promotes the ____________ of disulfide bonds. Reducing agent, breakage
What is the difference between baking soda and baking powder Baking powder does not require added acid in order to produce leavening
______________ are not monosaccharides: Maltose
Which substance would not possess glycosidic bonds? galactose
In the commercial manufacture of sugar, which is the key step? crystallization
The reaction glucose + hydrogen + sorbitol Produces a sugar alcohol and results in reduction of the sugar substrate
Which polysaccharide functions as both a prebiotic and ingredient for low-fat foods? inulin
Branched hydrocolloid polysaccharides can form gels more easily than linear ones because Branching brings reactive functional groups in close proximity through entanglement
Which describes the correct changes in a heated then cooled starch plus water system? Starch suspension -> sol -> paste -> gel
In the manufacture of hard candy based on sucrose, added acid would accomplish the following: Hydrolysis of sucrose
What is not a functional property of polysaccharides: enhanced sweetness
What is not a lipid functional property gelation
______________ does not have a higher melting point than stearic acid, C18:0 Linoleic acid
The commercial ________________ of oils is done to harden them and increase shelf life Hydrogenation
During lipoxidation, when a fatty acid free radical reacts with oxygen ROO is produced
What is true regarding S - S - S and S - O - P molecules? their melting behaviors would differ
In the enzymatic reaction: PPO exzyme + fruit pigment -> ES complex -> PPO enzyme + brown pigment, which substance is the oxidized molecule in the reaction, as written? Brown pigment
Alanine, leucine, and serine are classified as neutral _______ ____________s Amino acids
Which process does not take place in the cooking of eggs? denaturation of egg yolk lipids
At the isoelectric pH of a protein, pH = pI
Which statement regarding color perception is true? Reflected light that determines the color of a food
In addition to color qualities, food surfaces exhibits all of the following appearance characteristics except intensity
Which molecule contains metal-coordinated porphyrin structures? Chlorophyll and myoglobin
Which factors can change the quality of food color? oxygen, heat, and metals
Cyanidin is not the color ____________ Red
The certified colorant substance ____________ contains three phenolic rings and is water soluble. FD&C Red No.40
Quinine doesn't have the flavor response of ___________ astringent
Which food is pungent due to the presence of isothiocyanates? Mustard
Shu is the unit of measure for pungency
Which is not an example of a polyol? Mannose
The Strecker Degradation results in the production of aromas, results in the production of flavors, and can generate a pyrazine product
The definition of ______________ is a food's dominant initial aromatic flavor. top note
Which two functional properties allow texturizing agents to affect food texture? Viscosity and gelling
Fat mimetics act by controlling water in food systems
Hydration of gelatin produces a ____________ that becomes increasingly _____________ as it cools sol, viscous
Sorbitol is the reduced form of ___________ glucose
Which is not the correct pairing of a sugar and a polyol derived from it? sorbose, sorbitol
The important difference between intentional and indirect additives is indirect additives are undesirable
Which processing step is regulated as a food additive? irradiation
Which is not a function of food additives? Reduce cost of formulation
What is not a guiding principle for additive use? deception
GRAS substances are exempt from the __________ FAA
In a product like bread, why is calcium propionate used? antimicrobial agent
Sorbitol is a ________________, provides sweetness, and acts as a humectant polyol
Which additive would be effective in canned foods to inhibit oxidation reactions? EDTA
Which substance enhances the natural emulsifier activity present in process cheese? emulsifying salts
Examples of stabilizers or thickeners pectin, starch, guar gum, gelatin
Which event focused national attention on food misbranding and adulteration? Pure Food Congress
As legally interpreted, "reasonable certainty of no harm" defines Safe
The FDA published its biotechnology policy in the Federal Register
Which risk-benefit relationship indicates the best scenario from the health and safety standpoint? Ideal
In deciding to approve a food additive, this agency considers its composition and properties, the amount likely to be consumed, and long-term effects FDA
This test was developed to determine the mutagenic potential of a substance Ames test
Specific terms such as free, low, and reduced used on a food label are subject to _________ NLEA
The substance that is considered a drug rather than a dietary supplement due to the presence of mevinolin is Cholestin
Which legislation changed the definition and regulations for dietary supplements? DSHEA
The main difference between enrichment and fortification is Fortification provides missing nutrients
The main difference between a mutagen and a carcinogen is Mutagens cause mutations in cellular DNA
The only health claim related to fruits and vegetables regards stanol and sterol esters and CHD
Which statement best demonstrates the connection between Reference Daily Intake (RDI), Daily Reference Value (DRV), and Daily Value? DRV and RDI values are given as "% Daily Value" on the Nutrition Facts label
The conversion of raw animal and plant tissue into forms that are convenient and practical to consume is called Food Processing
Commercially sterile foods have a 2-year shelf life
Sterilization and blanching have what in common? They are both forms of thermal processing
The main use of iodophores is in Surimi Processing
Agitating, emulsifying, and blending represent the same ___________ ____________ Unit operation
The pressing of peanut oil from peanuts is an example of the _______________ unit operation Separating
Foods are processed because -Foods may contain biologically active water -Raw foods are perishable -Foods are contaminated
Technology differences between countries would impact the ______ _________ of their respective food industries unit operations
In a TDT plot, as spore concentration increases, Kill time and temperature increases
Nitric oxide acts as a _____________ to accelerate color development in cured meats Reductant
Which condition is common to meats that are frozen before rigor mortis is established? Thaw Rigor
Comminuted meat Plays a role in sausage processing and may contain chicken meat
T/F: Propionate and bread is a correct pairing? True
The procedure used to heat sealed cans to destroy bacterial spores is called.... Retort Processing
The ability of an organism to survive thermal processing is properly termed Heat resistance
Adding ____________ International Units of vitamin D to milk is a form of _________. 400, fortification
Which processing step is not also a preservation step? Stuff sausage into casing
High _______ foods have pH values > 4.6 acid
T/F: Freeze-dried meats have virtually all of their moisture removed (as ice) via sublimation, while retaining much of their original shape True
Traditional nonthermal processing methods are used for ____ ____________. Food preservation
Dissociated hydrolysis products of braised meat are primarily gelatin molecules
Certain manufactured cheese spreads are shelf stable at room temp...why? They probably contain antimicrobial additives and the product was pasteurized and sealed in an airtight package
D values written as D121 indicate The specific time required to kill 90 percent of a population of organisms heated to 121 degrees
The sucrose product obtained from sugarcane is Cane sugar
Why does the addition of sugar to a dough mix delay gluten development? Sugar competes for water
What is the correct sequence for sugar-cane processing? extraction, clarification, concentration, crystallization,separation
What reaction leads to the production of flavor precursors in raw cacao beans? Fermentation
The main goal of sugarcane processing is? crystallization
T/F: Dry milling is used to produce corn oil from corn False
What is true regarding hot filling fluid foods like apple-sauce and most fruit juices? High-acid foods are rendered commercially sterile without further thermal processing
The ratio of ___________ to ___________ in bread dough is about 3:1 Flour; water
In this process, animal tissue is heated in steam to melt and separate out the fat Rendering
Overmixing of dough ingredients enhances dough _________. Extensibility
Bananas are climacteric fruits; therefore, The best time to harvest them is before they are fully ripe
What technique using potassium iodide is used to measure oxidative rancidity? PV
The oxidative breakdown of organic biomolecules in fruits and vegetables requires the input of _______ and releases __________, ___________, and ___________ O2; carbon dioxide, water, and energy
T/F: Chocolate liquor is composed of cocoa butter and other substances True
Purified water meets the definition of EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
What is the role of ozone? to sanitize bottled water
Which sequence is the correct one for breadmaking? mixing, fermenting, proofing, baking
Which is not a processing step most associated with soft drinks? Fractionation
Which soy product has been produced through bioengineering? High oleic acid soybean oil
In cold-break tomato processing heating (is/is not) employed. Is not
A Lovibond value greater than 6.0 for a soybean oil most probably means Bleaching time is too brief
Raw sugar from cane juice results from ____________ and ____________. crystal separation and drying
What chemical reaction do you think would prove useful in the synthesis of chocolate flavor from sugars and proteins? Maillard
What is meant by tempering? Temperature manipulation so that cocoa butter will solidify into the desired, stable crystal form
To successfully operate a corn oil processing plant, what would be most essential? Knowing how to press the corn oil from the kernel
Bacteria are classified as Procaryotes
When bacterial spores germinate, the resulting organism is called Vegatative cell
Bacteria that require organic compounds for survival are known as Organotrophs
Most bacteria cannot grow when the water activity is Below 0.7
Bacteria that requires 6% of oxygen are called Microaerophiles
Psychrotrophs are organisms that Tolerate cold temperatures
Mesophilic organisms can grow at Room temp
The principle behind the application of several treatments to prevent bacterial growth is The Hurdle Effect
One of the main products of bacterial fermentation is Lactic acid
Spoilage microorganisms cause the shelf life of foods to (increase/decrease) decrease
Bacterial fermentation is an important part of the process known as composting
Dextrans are produced by Lactic acid bacteria
An example of a mold that spoils meats is Thamnidium
One of the products of meat spoilage is Cadaverine
Homofermentors are organisms that produce only one product during ______________. Fermentation
Fermentation causes the pH of foods to (increase/decrease) Decrease
Starter cultures are used for Fermentation of foods
A commercial starter culture used in meat fermentation is Lactacel
A yeast used in the making of bread is Saccharomyces
One of the three types of foodborne hazards is Biological
Toxins produced by molds are called Mycotoxins
A host organism in which a parasite multiplies is the Definitive host
The mold that produces aflatoxins is called Aspergillus
The serotype of Salmonella most often associated with egg-related outbreaks is Enteritidis
The international body involved in the definition of HACCP is Codex Alimentarius
Clostridium botulinum is a sporeformer
The danger zone for temperatures lies between 40 and 140 degrees (F)
The letters GMP stand for Good manufacturing Practices
The letters SOP stand for Standard Operating Procedures
The genus responsible for botulism is Clostridium
Cholera is caused by an organism belonging to the genus Vibrio
The presence of antibiotic residues in food matter is an example of a __________ ____________ Chemical hazard
What is PrP protein? A polypeptide composed of 231 amino acids, a prion, a protein that is proposed to have two forms: normal and rogue
The virus most often linked to foodhandlers is Hepatitis A
Consumption of toxin results in Intoxication
Consumption of Salmonella cells results in Infection
Taenia saginata is an example of a Flatworm
The leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States is Bacteria
Contact between foodhandlers and turtles has resulted in outbreaks of Salmonellosis
How does CJT directly contribute to illness? The exotoxin activates an enzyme that results in osmotic imbalance
E. Coli 0157:H7 can result from ingestion of ________________ foods. Cross-contaminated
Toxicants that are found inherent in foods are Endogenous
Mycotoxins are produced by molds
The concentration effect of a toxicant is measured by Dose-response
A method to determine toxicity that utilizes a living organism is Bioassay
The level above which a toxic effect is observed is Threshold level
The dose of toxicant required to kill 50% of a population is the LD50
A substance that causes cancer is a Carcinogen
Substances that quench oxidative reactions are Antioxidants
An example of a cruciferous vegetable is Broccoli
The substance that carries signals from the brain through nerve cells is Acetylcholine
NSP is caused by consumption of toxic Shellfish
Consumption of a toxicant that affects the digestive tract results in Gastrointestinal poisoning
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is caused by Dinophysis
Scombroid poisoning is caused by consumption of Histamine
The enzyme affected by cholera toxin is Adenylate cyclase
Toxins produced by e. coli 0157:H7 are Vero toxins
MLD50 is the term used for Does required to kill 50% of mice
Mutagens are Substances that cause mutations
Which of the following is a mycotoxin? Aflatoxins
Which is a mushroom toxicant? Hydrazine
Which toxicity would a person complaining of anemia and weakness likely be suffering from? hematological
The cassava root toxin is produced by the breakdown of __________ by ___________ enzymes glycoside compound, two
T/F: In the pesticide food chain, tons of pesticides are consumed annually by fish True
Since domoic acid resembles the amino acids glutamate and glutamic acid, it fools neurons into recognizing it as a neuro-transmitter
BST is destroyed by ____________ Pasteurization
T/F: Tg temp. range can help predict food storage life and stability of foods True
Which mechanisms are responsible for heat transfer in foods? Radiation, conduction, convection
A hot soup placed in storage at 5 degrees (C) in the steady state will cool down to about ________ degrees (F) 15
Which thermal events occur during the frying of a potato slice in hot oil? Denaturation of protein
The movement or migration of frying oil caused by concentration gradients is called Mass Transfer
Palm oil is a plant oil containing saturated, mono-unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. What is true about its microstructure? Consists of a three-dimensional network and it is related to the oil's macrostructure
In the manufacturing of tomato ketchup, which unit operation does not correspond to the microstructural level? Cleaning
The key microstructural elements in ice cream are lactose, casein, ice, air, and fat
A food scientist studying the effects of formulation and processing on the problem of ketchup viscosity is working in the area of rheology
An ______________ is a device that uses rotating screw technology within barrel and has the ability to cook and shape foods. Extruder
________________ show continuous deformation at a rate proportional to the amount of stress applied. Plastic Solids
T/F: Generally, it is undesirable to maintain a food in the rubbery state during extended storage. False
T/F: It is not possible to determine vapor pressure using the psychometric chart False
What is the junction between any two air property lines? State Point
Which is not a dielectric food property? q
When a potato slice is placed in hot frying oil, oil uptake into the potato is through ____________ ___________ Mass transfer
The mating of an offspring with its parent is known in plant breeding as Backcrossing
The term transgenic refers to plants or animals that are Modified by genetic engineering
This gene is one that is inserted in reverse antisense
Genetic engineering is defined as The manipulation of genes
___________ enzymes used to cut DNA in genetic engineering Restriction
The use of an electric field to insert DNA into cells is electroporation
Genes that code for a recognizable product, such as antibiotic resistance, are ___________ genes Marker
The letters PCR stand for Polymerase Chain Reaction
Bacterial reactors used for mass production of specific products are called ____________. Fermentors
The infection of plant tissue with A. rhyzogenes is Hairy root culture
Cloning is defined as the splitting of an embryo into ____________ cells 8
Comparison of genetically modified foods with standard foods is called Substantial equivalence
The appropriate food that bioengineered foods are compared to are Comparators
___________ is an organism known to produce a natural herbicide. B. thuringiensis
The enzyme _______________ breaks down fungus cell walls Chitinase
Trehalose sequesters ______________ from cells Water
The enzyme responsible for softening in tomatoes is Polygalacturonase
Fruits produce the following compound, which aids in the ripening process: Ethylene
Thaumatin is a natural _______________ Sweetener
Live cultures of bacteria that aid in food digestion are know as Probiotics
Which is a characteristic of supertasters? Often have strong food dislikes
The main applications of sensory evaluation in the food industry are In quality assurance and product development
The sensory attributes that define a food's appearance, flavor, texture, and aroma are Character notes
These cells function to detect taste stimuli as well as transfer taste information to the brain Taste receptor cells
Flavor combines all of the following except Appearance
Which mechanical texture characteristic refers to the degree to which a food deforms or compresses between the teeth before breaking? Cohesiveness
Which one is not a geometrical food characteristic? Adhesive
What negative results occurs if a sensory panelist is pre-sented with too many samples? Sensory Fatigue
T/F: Line extensions require the same amount of time and money to develop as totally new products False
What is the meaning of tristmulus? Three color dimensions
Is this pairing correct? Crackle, volatile flavors No
Which panelist selection and training criterion should not be applied to all sensory test situations? Socioeconomic level and cultural background
In this form the sensory test, the mechanical, geometrical, fat and moisture, and afterfeel characteristics of food are described and quantified Texture profiling
Which corresponds most to affective testing? Hedonic/acceptance/preference
What is ANN, and what key advantage does it offer? Artificial neural network; time saving
To maintain profits, a successful food company considers the uncertainty of the future
Which generally is not associated with a food product's life cycle? Decline in sale
"Where should your product be test marketed" is an example of what activity stage? Commercial stage
Is this paring correct? Caffeine,saccharin No
The Hunter color data for a light green vegetable would have values that are __________ compared to a dark green vegetable. higher in L
T/F: One of the sample presentation orders is AAA applies to the triangle test False
Created by: 1412440784