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Science StudyGuide 2

stress a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
What are the 3 different types of stress that can occur in the crust? Tension, Compression, and Shearing
What do the 3 types of stress do to rocks? over millions of years there is a change in shape and volume of the rock.
tension streches rock so it will be thinner in the middle
In tention the 2 plates move____________ from each other. apart
compression squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
In compression the 2 plates move___________. together
shearing a stress that pushes masses of rocks in opposite directions in a sideways movement
In shearing the 2 plates move____________ each other against
What are the 3 main types of faults? normal fault, reverse fault, and strike slip fault
hanging wall the block of rock that forms the upper half of the fault
footwall The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.
normal fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slide downward caused because of the tension in the crust.
A normal fault occurs when plates __________. come apart
reverse fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward caued by compression in the crust
A reverse fault occurs when plates__________. come together
strike slip fault a fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up and downn movement.
A strike slip fault occurs when plates ___________. slide past each other
anticlyn a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch
syncline a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley
plateau a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level.
earthquake the shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
focus the area beneath Earh's surface where rock that is under stress breaks trigering an earthquake
epicenter the point on the surface directly above the focus
What are the 3 main categories of waves? p waves, s waves, and surface waves
What 2 waves are sent from the focus? p waves ands waves (surface waves develop when other 2 waves get to epicenter)
Primary waves (p waves) a type of siesmic wave that compresses and expands the ground. they are the first waves to arrive.
Secondary waves (s waves) a type of siesmic waves that move the ground up and down or side to side. The second waves to arrive.
Surface waves a type of siesmic wave that forms when pwaves and s waves reach the Earth's surface. Goes slower than p and s waves but has lot of damage
What are the 3 scales commonly used to measure earthquakes? Mercalli, richter, and moment magnitude scale
Mercalli Scale rates earthquake according to the level of damagec
magnitude the number tht geologists assign to an earthquake based on its size
Richter Scale a rating of an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of the siesmic waves
siesmograph a device that records ground movement caused by seismic waves as they move through the Earth
Moment Magnnitude Scale a rating system that estimates total energy released by an earthquake
Geologists can use ______________ to locate an earthquakes epicenter. siesmic waves
siesmogram The record of an earthquuake's siesmic waves produced by a siesmograph
The bigger the lines are on a siesmogram the ........ bigger the earthquake.
The 4 instruments used to moniter faults are tiltmeters, creepmeters, laser ranging device, GPS satelites
tiltmeters measure vertical movement, there are 2 bulbs filled with water and when land moves water will move from 1 bulb to the other
creepmeter measures horizontal movement, there is a wieght and when and moves weight moves.
laser ranging device measures horizontal movement, ther is a laser and it has a reflectoron the other side of the fault, they time each reflection and if it chnged it means the fault moved
GPS satelites measures horizontal movement, find tiny markers if moved fault moved
scientists are trying to use data from siesmographs to _________________ predict future earthquakes
friction the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
some earthquake damage is shaking, liquefaction, aftershocks, and tsunamis
shaking can produce landslides and avalanches
loose soil shakes more _____________ than solid rock. violently
liquefaction when an earthquake shakes so hard that it turns soil into liquid mud.
aftershock an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area.
tsunamis a large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
the best way to protecct yourself during an earthquake is to drop, cover and hold
base isolated buildings designed to reduce the amount of energy that reaches a building during an earthquake using rubber pads and springs.
most dangerous thing in an earthquake is flying glass and falling objects
Created by: AartiM