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Pharm Key Terms.

68WM6 Exam 9 Intro to Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood stream for distribution to the tissues. Absorption
Drug interaction in which two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. Example: propoxyphene + acetaminophen (Darvon) = added analgesic effect. Additive effect
any unexpected, unintended, undesired response to medications. (allergic reaction, idiosyncratic) Adverse reactions
unpredictable, hypersensitivity response to a medication; make up 5-10% of all medication reactions. Allergic reactions
another type of allergic drug reaction manifested by the collection of fluid in subcutaneous tissues. Areas mostly commonly affected are the eyelids, lips, mouth, and throat. Angioedema
Drug interaction in which one drug interferes with the action of another. Example: tetracycline + antacid = decreased absorption of the tetracycline. Antagonistic effect
the transport of a drug by the blood stream to its site of action. Distribution
single prescribed amount of a drug given at one time. Dose
amount of medication prescribed for the client by the physician. Drug dosage
the length of time the concentration of a drug in the blood or tissues is sufficient to elicit a therapeutic response. Duration of action
process by which drugs are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys. Excretion
time required for the body to eliminate 50% of a given drug. Half-life
rare and unpredictable effects in which a particular client overreacts or under reacts to a medication or had a reaction different from normal. Idiosyncratic reactions
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs. Signs are haziness, precipitate, or a change in color. Incompatibility
the amount of drug that will cause death. Lethal dose
the largest amount of a drug that can be given safely Maximum dose
When one medication modifies the action of another medication. May produce a totally different effect than the expected effect of either drug. May be beneficial or harmful. Medication interactions
process by which a drug is converted by the liver to inactive compounds through a series of chemical reactions. Metabolism
the smallest amount of a drug that produces a therapeutic effect. Minimal dose
time required for the drug to elicit a therapeutic response. Onset of action
time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response. Peak effect
study of drugs and their action on the living body. Pharmacology
from administration of the drug, disintegration of dosage form, and dissolution of drug in the body. Pharmaceutical phase
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (what the body does to the drug molecules) Pharmicokinetic phase
what the drug does to the body. Pharmacodynamics
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. 1+1 is greater than 2. Synergistic effect
expected or predictable physiological response that a medication causes. Therapeutic effects
the amount of drug that produces signs and symptoms of poisoning. Toxic dose
may develop after prolonged intake of a medication or when a medication accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion. Toxic effects
the lowest concentration of a drug reached in the body after if falls from its peak level; usually measured in a blood sample just before next scheduled dose for therapeutic drug monitoring. Trough level
Description of the chemical composition and molecular structure of the drug. Name is not capitalized. The chemical name is important to the chemist Rarely used in clinical practice Chemical name
(nonproprietary) assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug before it becomes official. Used in most official drug compendium listings Name is not capitalized. More common to see name in the hospital setting. Generic name
Brand name (proprietary) is the drug’s registered trademark, given by the manufacturer First letter is capitalized. Brand name is more commonly used in the community. Name is usually followed by the trademark symbol: © or ™. Trade name
Disease state they are used to treat. Antacids. Antibiotics. Antihypertensives. Clinical indication
Drug’s physiological action within the body. Anti-cholinergics Proton-pump inhibitors Calcium-channel blockers Mechanism of action
Central nervous system. Cardiovascular system. Gastrointestinal system. Body system
The FDA assigns the drug to one of three categories: Prescription Drugs. Non-prescription Drugs. Controlled Substances. Drug categories
Largest category of drugs. Prescription drugs.
over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Non-prescription drugs
Drugs that have a high possibility for abuse or addiction. Controlled substances.
High abuse potential. No accepted medical use.   Examples: Heroine, Marijuana, and LSD. Schedule I
Potential for high abuse with severe dependence. Examples: HYDROCODONE. (Trade Names: Vicodin®, Lortab®, Lorcet®, Hycodan®, Vicoprofen®). Schedule II
Less abuse potential than Schedule II drugs. Potential for moderate dependence. Example: Anabolic steroids. Schedule III
Less abuse potential than Schedule III drugs.   Limited dependency potential.   Examples: Alprazolam (trade name Xanax) Schedule IV
Limited abuse potential. Examples: small amounts of narcotics (codeine) used as antitussive or antidiarrheals. Schedule V
a tablet that has an elongated shape like a capsule and is coated for ease of swallowing. Caplets
a tablet that has an indentation or marking that allows you to break the tablet into halves or quarters. Scored Tablet
a tablet with a special coating that protects them from the effects of gastric secretions and prevents them from dissolving in the stomach. They are dissolved and absorbed in the intestines. Enteric Coated Tablet
designed to be placed under the tongue, where they dissolve in saliva and the medication is absorbed. Sublingual Tablet
a form of medication that contains a powder, liquid, or oil enclosed in a hard or soft gelatin. Capsules
alcohol solution that is sweet and aromatic. Elixir
medication dissolved in concentrated solution of sugar and water. Syrup
one or more drugs finely divided into a liquid such as water. Suspension
Generally aqueous preparations, used as soothing agents Lotions
oil-based semisolid medication Ex NTG Ointments
semisolid, non-greasy emulsion for external application Creams
Medication is applied to external surface of the skin. Topical
contained in a patch or disk applied topically to the skin, slowly released and absorbed. (nitro, clonodine, nicoderm). Transdermal
Right medication. Right Dose. Right Time. Right Route. Right Patient. Right Documentation. The six rights
Created by: toomuchmonster