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68WM6-A&P 6

which kidney is located lower in the back? right
outer layer of kidney substance cortex
inner portion of kidney medulla
triangular divisions of medulla pyramids
narrow, innermost end of renal pyramid papilla
expansion of upper end of ureter which lies inside the kidney renal pelvis
divisions of the renal pelvis calyces
the microscopic units of the kidneys nephrons
the two main divisions of a nephron renal corpuscle, renal tubule
the two parts of the renal corpuscle bowman's capsule, glomerulus
the cup shaped top of the renal corpuscle bowman's capsule
the network of blood capillaries surrounded by bowman's capsule glomerulus
the first segment of the renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule
and extension of the proximal tubule, consisting of descending limb, loop, and ascending limb loop of henle
the extension of the ascending limb of the loop of henle distal convoluted tubule
straight extension of the distal convoluted tubule collecting tubule
this hormone secreted by the kidney helps regulate blood pressure renin
the hormone produced in this part of the kidney stimulates RBC production and maturation juxtaglomerular apparatus
5 functions of the kidney excrete toxins and nitrogenous wastes; regulate chemical levels; maintain water balance; regulate blood pressure; stimulate RBC production and maturation
three processes of urine formation filtration, reabsorption, secretion
this process of urine formation takes place in the renal corpuscles; glomerular blood pressure forces water and dissolved substances out of the glomeruli into bowman's capsule filtration
this process of urine formation involves the muovement of substances out of renal tubules into blood reabsorption
this process of urine formation involves the movement of substances into urine in the distal and collecting tubules secretion
this hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary regulates urinary volume output antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
narrow, long tubes with expanded upper end located inside the kidney and lined with mucous membrane ureters
these structures drain urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder ureters
the folds of the mucous membrane in the bladder rugae
narrow tube from the urinary bladder to the exterior urethra
extra function of the urethra in males only passage of reproductive fluid
another word for urionation or voiding micturition
the internal urinary sphincter is under ___________ control, and the external urinary sphincter is under _________ control involuntary; voluntary
a condition is which urine is produced but not voided urinary retention
a condition in which the bladder is normal but no urine is produced urinary supression
a condition in which urine is voided involuntarily incontinence
bladder infection cystitis
need for frequent urination, also called interstitial cystitis overactive bladder
mineralocorticoid that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium, and therefore, water aldosterone
absence of urine anuria
use of ultrasound waves to break up kidney stones without making an incision lithotripsy
kidney disease nephropathy
scanty amounts of urine oliguria
kidney stones renal calculi
pain caused by passage of a kidney stone renal colic
the amount of a substance (such as glucose) that exceeds the amount that the kidneys are able to absorb, causing it to "leak" into the urine renal threshold
smooth triangular area on the wall of the urinary bladder trigone
high levels of nitrogen-containing waste products in the blood uremia or uremic poisoning
essential reproduction organs of the male reproductive system testes
accessory organs of the male reproductive system ducts, sex glands, external genitals
these accessory organs of the male reproductive system are passageways that carry sperm from the testes to the exterior ducts
these accessory organs of the male reproductive system produce protective and nutrient solutions for sperm sex glands
the process of sperm production spermatogenesis
this hormone produced by the testes masculinizes and promotes the development of male accessory organs testosterone
single coiled tube about 6m in length that lies along the top and behind the testis in the scrotum epididymus
receives sperm from the epididymis and transports them from the scrotal sac through the abdominal cavity ductus (vas) deferens
mixture of sperm and accessory sex glands semen
this accessory organ of the male reproductive system is shaped like a doghnut and is located below the bladder prostate
these accessory organs of the male reproductive system are pea shaped glands that secrete mucous bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
surgical removal of foreskin circumcision
two dorsal columns of erectile tissue corpora cavernosa
the ventral column of erectile tissue surrounding the urethra corpus spongiosum
essential organs of the female reproductive system ovaries (gonads)
accessory organs of the female reproductive system ducts, sex glands, external genitals
this hormone produced by the ovaries causes develpment and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics estrogen
approximately how many ovarian follicles does a female have at birth? 1 million
approximately how many primary ovarian follicles does a female have at puberty? 400,000
this structure forms from the follicle after ovulation corpus luteum
the meiotic cell division that produces daughter cells with equal chromosome numbers but unequal cytoplasm oogenesis
the cells of the ovaries that produce estrogen granulosa ceels
the structure that produces progesterone following ovulation corpus luteum
the muscle layer of the uterus myometrium
the layer of the uterus lost in menstruation endometrium
end of repetetive menstrual cycles which occurs at approximately 45-50 years of age menopause
glands of the vagina that secrete lubricating fluid bartholin's glands
components of the vulva mons pubis, clitoris, orifice of urethra, bartholin's gland, vagina, labia minora, labia majora, and hymen
area between the vaginal opening and anus perineum
surgical cut to perineum during childbirth episiotomy
length of average menstrual cycle 28 days
the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the endomentrium is shed menses
the phase of the menstrual cycle between menses and secretory phase proliferative phase
the phase of the menstrual cycle between ovulation and the beginning of the next menses secretory phase
specialized structure on the sperm containing enzymes that break down the covering of the ovum to allow entry acrosome
absence of normal menstruation amenorrhea
cavity antrum
the pigmented ring around the nipple areola
noncancerous enlargement of the prostate benign prostatic hypertrophy
surgical removal of the foreskin circumcision
erectile tissue located in the vestibule of the vagina clitoris
two columns of erectile tissue found in the shaft of the penis corpora cavernosa
the column of erictile tissue surrounding the urethra corpus spongiosum
undescended testicles cryptorchidism
tube that allows sperm to exit from the epididymis and pass from the scrotal sac into the abdominal cavity vas deferens
a pregnancy outside the uterus ectopic pregnancy
sudden discharge of semen from the body ejaculation
tightly coiled tube that lies along the top and behind the testes where sperm mature epididymis
fringe; fingerlike projections on the fallopian tubes fimbriae
sex cell; sperm or ova gamete
a mature ovum in its sac graafian follicle
surgical removal of the uterus hysterectomy
duct that drains milk secreting glands of the breast lactiferous duct
the first menstrual cycle menarche
immature stage of the femal sex cell oocyte
production of female gametes oogenesis
surgical removal of the ovaries oophorectomy
release of an egg from the ovary ovulation
inflammatory disease of the female reproductive tract pelvic inflammatory disease
area between the vulva and the anus perineum
another name for the foreskin prepuce
surgical removal of all or part of the prostate prostatectomy
prostate enlargement prostatic hypertrophy
inflammation of the prostate prostatitis
the resulting daugher cells from the primary spermatocyte undergoing meiosis spermatid
precursors to sperm cells spermatogonia
sperm cells spermatozoa
tough, whitish membrane that surrounds each testis and divides the testis into lobules tunica albuginea
fertilized ovum zygote
the cells in the testes that secrete testosterone interstitial cells
this gland secretes a thin, milky fluid that makes up about 30% of the seminal fluid prostate gland
pair of gland that produce a thick, yellowish, fructose rich fluid that makes up about 60% of the seminal fluid seminal vesicles
the most abundant body compound water
water is ______ percent of body weight in males, _____ percent in females 60, 50
average volume in liters of water in a 70kg male 40
two major body fluid compartments intracellular, extracellular
three types of extracellular fluid interstitial, intravascular, transcellular
this type of extracellular fluid is found between cells interstitial
this type of extracellular fluid is found in the vascular spaces (also called plasma) intravascular
this type of fluid is found in a special compartment (lymph, CSF, eye humors) transcellular
organic substances that do not break up or dissociate when placed in water solution nonelectrolytes
compounds that break up or dissociate in water solution into ions electrolytes
the dissociated particles of an electrolyte that carry an electrical charge ions
most abundant and important extracellular cation sodium
fluid output exceeds fluid intake dehydration
fluid intake exeeds fluid output overhydration
positively charged ion cation
negatively charged ion anion
buildup of extracellular fluid in interstitial spaces edema
process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentration to low concentration diffusion
pressure exerted by fluids hydrostatic pressure
solution with a higher level of salt than is found in a living RBC hypertonic
solution with a lower level of salt than is found in a living RBC hypotonic
circulatory failure caused by a drop in blood volume that causes blood pressure to drop hypovolemic shock
a solution that has the same salt concentration as the normal cell of the body and the blood isotonic
movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane osmosis
primary regulator of water intake thirst
most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid potassium
most abundant ion in the body; found mostly in bones and teeth calcium
main extracellular anion chloride
extracellular anion that is important in the acid/base regulation of the body bicarbonate
lower than normal blood sodium hyponatremia
higher than normal blood sodium hypernatremia
lower than normal blood potassium hypokalemia
higher than normal blood potassium hyperkalemia
Created by: ewoff85