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Hy - FA Rapid Review

Hy - FA Rapid Review - Classic Labs & Findings

QuestionAnswer
Anticentromere antibodies Scleroderma (CREST)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane antibodies Goodpasture’s Syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung hemorrhage)
Antihistone antibodies Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG antibodies Rheumatoid Arthritis
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) 1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestatis, portal hypertension)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) Vasculitis( Wegener’s, microscopic poly angitis, glomerulonephritis)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: antiSmith and anti-dsDNA) SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleeding diathesis)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin antibodies celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts Auer rods 9acute myelogenous leukemia: especially the promyelocytic type)
“bamboo spine” on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs lead poisoning or sideroblastic anema
Bloody tap on LP subarachnoid hemorrhage
“boot-shaped” heart on X-ray Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules Actinomyces israelii
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor Pancoast’s tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner’s syndrome)
“Brown” tumor of bone Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes borwn color of osteolytic cysts due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism, 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystic (von Recklinghausen’s disease of bone)
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas’ disease (trypanosome cruzi)
Cellular crescents in bowman’s capsule rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Chocolate cyst of ovary endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in caucasisans resulting in fat-souble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Degeneration of dorsal column nervs Tabes dorsalis (Tertiary Syphallis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
desquamated epithelium casts in sputum Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophillic fluid call-exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hperchromasia Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies "owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei "orhpan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell Lewy Body (parkinson's disease)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eosinophic globule in liver councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinphilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye") Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
"hair-on-end" (crew cut) appearance on x-ray β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heart nodules (inflammatory) Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodies infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
"honeycomb lung" on x-ray interstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia, lead poinsoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased α-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Anecephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
increased uric acid levels Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclear eosinphilic droplet-like bodies Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or yellow fever)
Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increased chance of mesothelioma)
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunocompromised Chediak-Higashi disease (failure of phagolysosome formation)
Low serum ceruloplsamin Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degneration)
"lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
lytic ("hole-punched") bone lesions on x-ray Multiple myeloma
Mammary gland ("blue-domed") cyst Fibrocytsic change of the breast
monoclonal antibody spike 1. Multiple Myelmoa (M protein) 2. monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) 3. Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (M protein)
Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine Bence Jones proteins Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph "string sign" (Crohn's Disease)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringement crystaals Gout (hyperuricemia)
Nodular Hyaline deposits in glomeruli Kimmelsteil-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
"nutmeg" appearance of liver Crhonic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
"onion-skin" periosteal reaction Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
Periosteum raided from bone, creating triangular area Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
podocyte fusion on EM minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau neurofibrillary tangles (alzheimer's disease and CJD)
pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement glioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urine acute glomerulonephritis
rectangular, crystal-like inclusions in leydig cells Reinke crystals (ledig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urine acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively bifringent pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate)
Rib notching coarctation of the aorta
Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells (“starry sky” appearance on histology) Burkitt’s lymphoma (t[8
Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons Pick bodies (Pick’s disease: progressive dementia, similar to alzheimers)
Small granulomatous lesion in lungs (can calcify) Ghon focus (Primary TB: mycobacterium bacilli)
Small, round RBC inclusions Heinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, α-thalassemia, chronic liver disease)
“soap bubble” on x-ray Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
“Spikes” on basement membrane, “dome-like” endothelial deposits Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephritic syndrome)
Stacks of red blood cells Rouleaux formation (high ESR: multiple myloma)
Stippled vaginal epithelial cells “clue cells” (gardnerella vaginalis)
“tennis-racket”-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in langerhans cells Birbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layers Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
“thumb sign” on lateral x-ray Epiglottitis (H. influenzae)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidney chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
“Tram-track” appearance on LM membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
WBCs that look “smudged” CLL (almost always B cell
“Wire loop” glomerular appearance on LM Lupus nephropathy
Yellow CSF xanthochromia (subarachnoid hemorrhage)
Created by: HY90X