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Hy - Essential Pharm

Hy - Essential Pharm - One-Liners

Time it takes for amount of drug to fall to half of its value, constant in first order kinetics (majority of drugs) Half-life (T1/2)
This step of metabolism makes drug more hydrophilic and hence augments elimination Phase I
Inducers of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin
Inhibitors of CYP450 Cimetidine, ketoconazole, erythromycin, isoniazid and grapefruit
Ability of drug to produce a biologic effect Efficacy
Mechanism of action (MOA) utilizes intracellular receptors Thyroid and steroid hormones
MOA utilizes transmembrane receptors Insulin
Antidote used for organophosphate/anticholinesterase poisoning Atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM)
Antidote used for acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
Antidote used for heparin toxicity Protamine
Antidote used for warfarin toxicity Vitamin and Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Antidote for tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), streptokinase Aminocaproic acid
Antidote used for opioid toxicity Naloxone (IV), naltrexone (PO)
Antidote used for benzodiazepine toxicity Flumazenil
Interaction with this drug requires dose reduction of 6-MP Allopurinol
May protect against doxorubicin toxic by scavenging free radicals Dexrazoxane
Blows DNA (breaks DNA strands), limiting SE is pulmonary fibrosis Bleomycin
Interact with microtubules (but unlike vinca which prevent disassembly of tubules), it stabilizes tubulin and cells remain frozen in metaphase Paclitaxel (taxol)
Anti-estrogen used for estrogen receptor + breast cancer Tamoxifen
Anti-emetics used in association with anti-cancer drugs that are 5-HT3 (serotonin receptor subtype ) antagonist Odansetron, granisetron
Dopamine (DA) agonist (for Parkinson's disease), used also for hyperprolactinemia Bromocriptine
Hormone inhibiting prolactin release Dopamine
ACTH analog used for diagnosis of patients with corticosteroid abnormality Cosyntropin
Synthetic analog of ADH hormone used for diabetes insipidus and nocturnal enuresis Desmopressin (DDAVP)
Most widely used thyroid drugs such as Synthroid and Levoxyl contain L-thyroxine (T4)
Thioamide less likely to cross placenta, inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 in high doses, and should be used with extreme caution in pregnancy PTU
PTU (propylthiouracil) MOA Inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis by blocking iodination of the tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin
Some side effects of corticosteroids Osteopenia, impaired wound healing, inc. risk of infection, inc. appetite, HTN, edema, PUD, euphoria, psychosis
Diuretic used to antagonize aldosterone receptors Spironolactone
Common SE of spironolactone Gynecomastia and hyperkalemia
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used for prevention of osteoporosis and currently being tested for treatment of breast cancer (Stars study) Raloxifene
Non-steroidal estrogen agonist causes clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in daughters of women who used it during pregnancy Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Converted to more active form DHT by 5 alpha-reductase Testosterone
Drug is used with testosterone for male fertility Leuprolide
Product of proinsulin cleavage used to assess insulin abuse C-peptide
Exogenous insulin Little C-peptide
Long acting insulin Ultralente (humulin U)
Amino acid derivative Nateglinide
Increase bone density, also being tested for breast CA tx. Raloxifene (SERM-selective estrogen receptor modulator)
Used intranasally and decreases bone resorption Calcitonin (salmon prep)
Drug that causes contraction of the uterus Oxytocin
Distribution of histamine receptors H1, H2, and H3 Smooth muscle; stomach, heart, and mast cells; nerve endings, CNS respectively
Prototype antagonist of H1 and H2 receptors Diphenhydramine and impromidine respectively
1st generation antihistamine that is highly sedating Diphendydramine
2nd generation antihistamines Fexofenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine
H2 blocker that causes the most interactions with other drugs Cimetidine
5HT-1d agonist used for migraine headaches " Sumatriptan, naratriptan, and rizatriptan
Agents for reduction of postpartum bleeding Ergonovine and ergotamine
Agents used in treatment of carcinoid tumor Ketanserin cyproheptadine, and phenoxybenzamine
"5HT-3 antagonist used in chemotherapeutic induced
emesis " "Ondansetron, granisetron,
dolasetron and alosetron "
DOC of chemo induced nausea and vomiting Odansetron
Ergot alkaloid used as an illicit drug LSD
Dopamine agonist used in hyperprolactinemia Bromocriptine
Mediator of tissue pain, edema, inactivated by ACE, and may be a contributing factor to the development of angioedema Bradykinin
Drug causing depletion of substance P (vasodilator) Capsaicin
Prostaglandins that cause abortions Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol) PGE2, and PGF2alpha
Inhibitor of lipoxygenase Zileuton
Used in pediatrics to maintain patency of ductus arteriosis PGE1
Prostaglandin used in the treatment impotence Alprostadil
MOA and effect of nitric oxide Stimulates cGMP which leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation
Muscarinic antagonist used in asthma Ipratropium
MOA action of cromolyn Mast cell stabilizer
SE of long term (>5 days) corticosteroid therapy and remedy Adrenal suppression and weaning slowly, respectively
MOA of quinolones Inhibit DNA gyrase
Drug used for MRSA Vancomycin
Vancomycin MOA Blocks peptidoglycan synthesis
Meningitis prophylaxis in exposed patients Rifampin
Technique used to diagnose perianal itching, and the drug used to treat it "Scotch tape technique
and mebendazole"
MOA of sulfonamides Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
Cheap wide spectrum antibiotic DOC of otitis media Amoxicillin
DOC for tx of pseudomembranous colitis Metronidazole
Anemia caused by trimethoprim Megaloblastic anemia
DOC for giardia, bacterial vaginosis, pseudomembranous colitis, and trichomonas Metronidazole
Treatment for TB patients (think RIPE) Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol
Common side effect of Rifampin Red urine discoloration
DOC for influenza A Amantadine
DOC for RSV Ribavirin
HIV antiviral class known to have severe drug interactions by causing inhibition of metabolism Protease inhibitors
Drug used for N. gonorrhea in females Ceftriaxone
DOC for herpes and its MOA Acyclovir and inhibits thymidine kinase Acyclovir and inhibits thymidine kinase
Anti-microbials that cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients Sulfonamides
Anti-biotic frequently used for chronic UTI prophylaxis sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim
Major effect of benzodiazepines on sleep at high doses REM is decreased
Reason benzos are used cautiously in pregnancy Ability to cross the placenta
Antidote to benzodiazepine overdose (antagonist that reverses the CNS effects) Flumazenil
Agent that is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS) Ethanol
System that increases in activity with chronic exposure and may contribute to tolerance MEOS
The most common neurologic abnormality in chronic alcoholics Peripheral neuropathy (also excessive alcohol use is associated with HTN, anemia, and MI)
Drugs of choice for generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures Valproic acid and Phenytoin
Drugs of choice for absence seizures Ethosuximide and valproic acid
Drug of choice for myoclonic seizures Valproic acid
Anti-seizure drugs used also for pain of neuropathic orgin Gabapentin
SE of phenytoin Gingival hyperplasia, nystagmus, diplopia and ataxia
DOC for malignant hyperthermia that may be caused by use of halogenated anesthetics Dantrolene
Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, it accelerates recovery from benzodiazepine overdose Flumazenil
Opioid associated with respiratory depression, but is used in high risk patients who may not survive full general anesthetia Fentanyl
DOC for malignant hyperthermia by acting on the sacroplasmic reticulum or skeletal muscle Dantrolene
Antipsychotics, reserpine at high doses, and MPTP (by-product of illicit meperidine analog) and is irreversible Drug induced Parkinsonism
Side effects occuring in antipsychotics that block dopamine Hyperprolactinemia, menorrhea, galactorrhea, confusion, mood changes, decreased sexual interest, and weight gain
Antipsychotic used in the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia Risperidone
Atypical antipsychotic causing high prolactin levels Risperidone
Drug used in neuroleptic malignant syndrome Dantrolene
Antipsychotic having the strongest autonomic effects Thioridazine
Agent having no effect on D2 receptors, blocks D4, reserved for resistant schizophrenia, and can cause agranulocytosis Clozapine
Anti-psychotic not shown to cause tardive dyskinesia Clozapine
Major route of elimination for Lithium Kidneys
Patients being treated with lithium, who are dehydrated, or taking diuretics concurrently, could develop Lithium toxicity
DOC for bipolar affective disorder Lithium
SE of lithium Tremor, sedation, ataxia, aphasia, thyroid enlargement, and reversible diabetes insipidus
TCA used in chronic pain, enuresis, and ADD Imipramine
Heterocyclic antidepressants least likely to affect sexual performance, used for management of nicotine withdrawal, SE's include dizziness, dry mouth, aggravation of psychosis, and seizures Bupropion
Activation of these receptors close Ca2+ ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release Presynaptic mu, delta, and kappa receptors
Tolerance to all effects of opioid agonists can develop except Miosis and constipation
Opioid used in the management of withdrawal states Methadone
Opioid available trans-dermally Fentanyl
Opioid that can be given PO, by epidural, and IV, which helps to relieve the dyspnea of pulmonary edema Morphine
Moderate opioid agonists Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone
Opioid antagonist that is given IV and had short DOA Naloxone
Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs Naltrexone
Readily detected markers that may assist in diagnosis of the cause of a drug overdose include Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and pupillary responses
Leads to respiratory depression progressing to coma and death Overdose of opioids
This agent may cause more severe, rapid and intense symptoms to a recovering addict Naloxone
"Date rape drug" Flunitrazepam (rohypnol)
These agents are CNS depressants Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines
Treatments available for nicotine addiction Patches, gum, nasal spray, psychotherapy, and bupropion
THC is active ingredient, SE's include impairment of judgment, and reflexes, decreases in blood pressure and psychomotor performance occur Marijuana
This agent has greater affinity for muscarinic receptors and used for postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention Bethanechol
Toxicity of organophosphate: DUMBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, salivation, and sweating)
Treat manifestations of Parkinson's disease and EPS Benztropine, trihexyphenidyl
Treatment of motion sickness Scopolamine
Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia Atropine, homatropine tropicamide
Bronchodilation in asthma and COPD Ipratropium
Pneumonic for beta receptors You have 1 heart (Beta 1) and 2 lungs (Beta 2)
This is the drug of choice for anaphylactic shock Epinephrine
These agents decrease blood flow or increase blood pressure, are local decongestant, and used in therapy of spinal shock (temporary maintenance of blood pressure which may help maintain perfusion Alpha1 agonists
Alpha 1 agonist toxicity Hypertension
Selective Alpha 1 blocker used for hypertension, BPH, may cause first dose orthostatic hypotension Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
SelectiveB1 Receptor blockers that may be useful in treating patients with asthma Acebutolol, atenolol, esmolol, metoprolol
This beta blocker lacks local anesthetic activity (decreases protective reflexes and increases the risk of corneal ulceration) and used in treating glaucoma Timolol
These Beta blockers decrease aqueous secretion Timolol (nonselective), betaxolol (selective)
Inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Ace inhibitors
Captopril and enalapril (-OPRIL ending) are Ace inhibitors
SE of ACE inhibitors Dry cough, hyperkalemia
Ace inhibitors are contraindicated in pregnancy and with K+
Losartan and valsartan block Angiotensin receptor
Angiotensin receptor blockers do NOT cause Dry cough
CCB contraindicated in CHF Verapamil
SE of CCB Constipation, edema, and headache
Reduce heart rate, contractility, and O2 demand Beta-blockers
Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol
SE of beta blockers Bradycardia, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, decrease in HDL, and increase in Triglycerols (TG)
Alpha 1selective blockers Prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin (-AZOSIN ending)
A1a-selective blocker used for BPH Tamsulosin (Flomax)
SE of alpha blockers Orthostatic hypotension (especially with first dose) and reflex tachycardia
Methyldopa is contraindicated in Geriatrics due to its CNS (depression) effects
SE of hydralazine Lupus-like syndrome
Diuretic used for mountain sickness and glaucoma Acetazolamide
SE of acetazolamide Paresthesias, alkalization of the urine (which may ppt. Ca salts), hypokalemia, acidosis, and encephalopathy in patients with hepatic impairment
Site of action of loop diuretics Thick ascending limb
SE of loop (furosemide) diuretics Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and ototoxicity
Loops lose and thiazide diuretics retain Calcium
Site of action of thiazide diuretics Work at early distal convoluted tubule
SE of thiazide (HCTZ) diuretics Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and hyperglycemia
Potassium sparing diuretics inhibit Na+/K+ exchange
Diuretic used to treat primary aldosteronism Spironolactone
SE of spironolactone Gynecomastia hyperkalemia, and impotence
Osmotic diuretic used for increased intracranial pressure Mannitol
ADH agonist used for pituitary diabetes insipidus Desmopressin (DDAVP)
MOA of class I A (eg. Procainamide), class IB (eg. Lidocaine), and class IC (eg. Flecainide) antiarrhythmics Sodium channel blockers
SE of procainamide Lupus-like syndrome
Limiting side effect of Quinidine Prolongs QT interval
DOC for management of acute Ventricular arrhythmias Lidocaine
Life threatening cardiac event that prolong QT leads to Torsades de pointes
MOA of sildenafil (Viagra) Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, enhancing effects of nitric oxide-activated increases in cGMP
MOA of nitrates Relax vascular smooth muscle, at low doses dilate veins and at high doses dilate arterioles
Vitamin K dependent anticoagulant Warfarin (PT)
Heparin (PTT) increases activity of Antithrombin 3
Antidote to reverse actions of heparin Protamine sulfate
SE of Aspirin GI bleeding
MOA of thrombolytics Degradation of fibrin clots and are administered
Thrombolytics are used for Pulmonary embolism and DVT
Agent for pernicious anemia Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)
Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does NOT reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy Folic acid
Agent used for anemias associated with renal failure Erythropoietin
Drug or foods (grapefruit juice) that increase statin effect Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4
Monitoring parameter to obtain before initiation of STATINS LFT's
Decreases liver triglycerol synthesis Niacin
SE of niacin Cutaneous flush
Fibrates (gemfibrozil) increase activity of Lipoprotein lipase
Agent used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus Indomethacin
Acetaminophen only has Antipyretic and analgesic activity
Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity N-acetylcysteine
DMARDs are slow acting drugs for Rheumatic disease
NSAIDS used in gout Indomethacin and phenylbutazone
Allopurinol treats chronic gout by inhibiting Xanthine oxidase
Created by: HY90X



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