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Hy - Complete Pharm

Hy - Complete Pharm - One-Liners

NSAID contraindicated in gout Aspirin
The selective agents loose their selectivity at high doses
Scabicide organophosphate Malathion
Common side effect of hypnotic agents Sedation
Anti-seizure medication also used in the prevention of migraines Valproic acid
Another pneumonic for anticholinergic toxicity "dry as a bone, red as a beet, mad as a hatter, hot as a hare, blind as a bat"
Clinical response that may fluctuate in tx of Parkinson's dx "On-off-phenomenon"
Antidote used for carbon monoxide poisoning 100% O2 and hyperbaric O2
Usual time needed for full effect of antidepressant therapy 2 to 3 weeks
Period of time of therapy after which GC therapy will need to be tapered 5-7 days
Pyrimidine analog that causes "Thiamine-less death" given with leucovorin rescue 5-flouracil (5-FU)
Analog of hypoxanthine, needs HGPRTase for activation 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Block glycoprotein IIb/IIIa involved in platelet cross-linking Abciximab, tirofiban and eptifibatide
Reason benzos are used cautiously in pregnancy Ability to cross the placenta
Lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, sweating, weakness, gooseflesh, nausea, and vomiting, tremor, muscle jerks, and hyperpnea are signs of this syndrome Abstinence syndrome
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor associated with elevation of LFT's Acarbose
Examples of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) Acarbose, miglitol
Inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Ace inhibitors
Captopril and enalapril (-OPRIL ending) are Ace inhibitors
These beta blockers are less lipid soluble Acebutolol and atenolol
SelectiveB1 Receptor blockers that may be useful in treating patients with asthma Acebutolol, atenolol, esmolol, metoprolol
This diuretic decreases aqueous secretion due to lack of HCO3- ion. Causes drowsiness and paresthesias, alkalinization of the urine may precipitate calcium salts, hypokalemia, acidosis Acetazolamide
Diuretic used for mountain sickness and glaucoma Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamide
Clinical use for H2 blockers Acid reflux disease, duodenal ulcer and peptic ulcer disease
MOA of AGI's Act on intestine, delay absorption of glucose
Adenosine's MOA Activates acetylcholine sensitive K+ channels in SA and AV node
Barbiturates may precipitate this hematologic condition Acute intermittent porphyria
DOC for herpes and its MOA Acyclovir and inhibits thymidine kinase Acyclovir and inhibits thymidine kinase
The most common type of drug interaction of sedative hypnotics with other depressant medications Additive CNS depression
DOC for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) Adenosine
Anti-arrhythmic with 15 second duration of action Adenosine
Neurotoxicity with isoniazid (INH) prevented by Administration of Vit. B6 (pyridoxine)
SE of long term (>5 days) corticosteroid therapy and remedy Adrenal suppression and weaning slowly, respectively
ABVD regimen used for HD, but appears less likely to cause sterility and secondary malignancies than MOPP Adriamycin (doxorubicin) +bleomycin, vinblastine +dacarbazine
MOA for Valproic acid at high doses Affect calcium, potassium, and sodium channels
Strength of interaction between drug and its receptor Affinity
Carbamazepine may cause Agranulocytosis
Short acting Beta 2 agonists that is drug of choice in treatment of acute asthma but not recommended for prophylaxis Albuterol
Agent that is teratogen and causes a fetal syndrome Alcohol
Agent that is the antidote for methanol overdose Alcohol
Rate limiting step of alcohol metabolism Aldehyde dehydrogenase
Agent that metabolize acetaldehyde to acetate Aldehyde dehydrogenase
Available bisphosphonates Alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, pamidronate, tiludronate, and zoledronic acid
Antidote for salicylate intoxication Alkalinize urine, dialysis
MOA of cisplatin Alkylating agent
Some cell cycle non-specific drugs Alkylating agents (eg., mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide), antibiotics (doxorubicin, daunorubicin), cisplatin, nitrosourea
Drug used concurrently with toxic anticancer agents to reduce renal precipitation of urates Allopurinol
Interaction with this drug requires dose reduction of 6-MP Allopurinol
These agents decrease blood flow or increase blood pressure, are local decongestant, and used in therapy of spinal shock (temporary maintenance of blood pressure which may help maintain perfusion Alpha1 agonists
Benzodiazepines that are the most effective in the treatment of panic disorder Alprazolam and Clonazepam
Prostaglandin used in the treatment impotence Alprostadil
MOA of gold salts Alter activity of macrophages and suppress phagocytic activity of PMNs
DOC for influenza A Amantadine
Enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission SE's include CNS excitation, acute toxic psychosis and livedo reticularis Amantadine
Antidote for tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), streptokinase Aminocaproic acid
Antidote for thrombolytics Aminocaproic acid
Inhibits conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone therefore inhibiting corticosteroid synthesis Aminoglutethimide
Class III antiarrhythmic that exhibits properties of all 4 classes Amiodarone
Antiarrhythmic effective in most types of arrhythmia Amiodarone
TCA used in chronic pain, a hypnotic, and has marked antimuscarinic effects Amitriptyline
Antidepressant associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome Amoxapine
Cheap wide spectrum antibiotic DOC of otitis media Amoxicillin
Phenylisopropylamines that are used legitimately and abused for narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, and weight reduction Amphetamines
Tolerance is marked and abstinence syndrome occurs Amphetamines
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors that increase mortality and have been found to have NO beneficial effects Amrinone and milrinone
Losartan and valsartan block Angiotensin receptor
Neurologic SE of benzodiazepines Anterograde amnesia
Four main actions of NSAIDS Anti-inflammatory, analgesia, antipyretic and antiplatelet activity
Acetaminophen only has Antipyretic and analgesic activity
Heparin (PTT) increases activity of Antithrombin 3
SE for Felbamate Aplastic anemia and acute hepatic failure
SE of phenylbutazone Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis
SE of penicillamine Aplastic anemia and renal
Selective alpha agonists that decreases aqueous secretion Apraclonidine, brimonidine
Primary endogenous substrate for Nitric Oxidase Synthase Arginine
Nitroprusside vasodilates Arteries and veins
Inhibit synaptic activity of primary afferents and spinal cord pain transmission neurons Ascending pathways
Irreversible, nonselective COX inhibitor Aspirin
Agent used to treat MI and to reduce incidence of subsequent MI Aspirin
Cutaneous flush and be reduced by pretreatment with Aspirin
Difference between aspirin and other NSAIDS Aspirin irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase
Drugs used in the management of angina Aspirin, Nitrates, CCB, and Beta blockers
Beta-blockers should be used cautiously in Asthma (bronchospastic effects), diabetes (block signs of hypoglycemia) and peripheral vascular disease
Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol
Agent undergoing Hofmann elimination (breaking down spontaneously) Atracurium
Digoxin is used in Atrial fibrillation and CHF
Treatment of choice for organophosphate overdose Atropine
Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia Atropine, homatropine tropicamide
Antidote used for organophosphate/anticholinesterase poisoning Atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM)
Endogenous substances commonly interpreted as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins, and vasoactive peptides Autocoids
HIV med used to reduce transmission during birth AZT (zidovudine)
Lactam that can be used in PCN allergic patients Aztreonam
GABA agonist in the spinal cord Baclofen
Inducers of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin
Class II antiarrhythmics are B-blockers
Anti-arrhythmics that decrease mortality B-blockers
Site of action for zaleplon and zolpidem Benzodiazepine receptor BZ1 (although are not considered benzodiazepines)
MOA utilizes ligand gated ion channels Benzodiazepines and calcium channel blockers
Agent decreases the excitatory actions of cholinergic neurons. May improve tremor and rigidity but have LITTLE effect on bradykinesia. Atropine-like side effects Benztropine
Treat manifestations of Parkinson's disease and EPS Benztropine, trihexyphenidyl
Antidote for severe CV toxicity of theophylline Beta blockers
Clinical uses of these agents include treatment of HTN, angina, arrhythmias, and chronic CHF Beta blockers
Toxicity of these agents include bradycardia, AV blockade, exacerbation of acute CHF, signs of hypoglycemia may be masked (tachycardia, tremor, and anxiety) Beta blockers
B-blockers that are more cardioselective Beta C2001-selective blockers
These agents increase blood flow and may be beneficial in treatment of acute heart failure and some types of shock Beta1 agonists
Reduce heart rate, contractility, and O2 demand Beta-blockers
Block cardiac adverse effects of thyrotoxicosis such as tachycardia, inhibits the conversion of T4 to T3 Beta-blockers such as propranolol
Long acting GC's Betamethasone, dexamethasone, and paramethasone
This agent has greater affinity for muscarinic receptors and used for postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention Bethanechol
Decrease intestinal absorption of cholesterol Bile acid-binding resins
Cholestyramine and colestipol are Bile acid-binding resins
MOA of nystatin Bind ergosterol in fungal cell membrane
The fraction of administered dose of a drug that reaches systemic circulation Bioavailability (F)
SE of both warfarin and heparin Bleeding
Blows DNA (breaks DNA strands), limiting SE is pulmonary fibrosis Bleomycin
Some cell cycle specific anti-cancer drugs Bleomycin, vinca alkaloids, antimetabolites (eg., 5-FU, 6-MP, methotrexate, etoposide)
MOA of penicillin Block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross-linkage
Toxicity of anticholinergics block SLUD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation
MOA of local anesthetics (LA's) Block voltage-dependent sodium channels
Vancomycin MOA Blocks peptidoglycan synthesis
SE of demeclocycline Bone marrow and teeth discoloration for children under 8 years of age
SE of beta blockers Bradycardia, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, decrease in HDL, and increase in Triglycerols (TG)
Mediator of tissue pain, edema, inactivated by ACE, and may be a contributing factor to the development of angioedema Bradykinin
Peptide causing increased capillary permeability and edema Bradykinin and histamine
Dopamine (DA) agonist (for Parkinson's disease), used also for hyperprolactinemia Bromocriptine
Dopamine agonist used in hyperprolactinemia Bromocriptine
Ergot alkaloid that is a partial agonist at D2 receptors in the brain, used for patients who are refractory or cannot tolerate levodopa, causes erythromelalgia Bromocriptine
Partial opioid agonist, considered a strong analgesic, has a long duration of action and is resistant to naloxone reversal Buprenorphine
Heterocyclic antidepressants least likely to affect sexual performance, used for management of nicotine withdrawal, SE's include dizziness, dry mouth, aggravation of psychosis, and seizures Bupropion
Agent that is a partial agonist for the 5-HT1A receptor Buspirone
Drug of choice for generalized anxiety disorder, NOT effective in acute anxiety Buspirone
Withdrawal from this drug causes lethargy, irritability, and headache Caffeine
Used intranasally and decreases bone resorption Calcitonin (salmon prep)
Used especially in postmenopausal women, dosage should be 1500 mg Calcium
Loops lose and thiazide diuretics retain Calcium
Block L-type calcium channel Calcium channel blockers
MOA of class IV antiarrhythmics Calcium channel blockers
MOA for Ethosuximide Calcium channels
Drug causing depletion of substance P (vasodilator) Capsaicin
Anti-seizure drugs used also for Trigeminal neuralgia Carbamazepine
Anti-seizure agent that induces formation of liver drug-metabolism enzymes, is teratogen and can cause craniofacial anomalies and spina bifida Carbamazepine
Anti-seizure drugs used as alternative drugs for mood stabilization Carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, and valproic acid
PCN active against pseudomonas Carbenicillin, piperacillin and ticarcillin
This is combined with L-dopa, inhibits DOPA decarboxylase (active only peripherally) which allows lower effective doses of L-dopa and allows for fewer SE's (GI distress, postural hypotension, and dyskinesias) Carbidopa
Agent similar to cisplatin, less nephrotoxic, but greater myelosuppression Carboplatin
Lithium is associated with this congenital defect Cardiac anomalies and is contraindicated in pregnancy or lactation
Nitrosoureas with high lipophilicity, used for brain tumors Carmustine (BCNU) and lomustine (CCNU)
Reason fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in children and pregnancy Cartilage damage
Agent used in CHF that is a selective alpha and nonselective beta blocker Carvedilol
Cephalosporins able to cross the BBB Cefixime (2nd) and 3rd generation
Drug used for N. gonorrhea in females Ceftriaxone
Cephalosporin causes kernicterus in neonates Ceftriaxone or cefuroxime
Newer NSAIDs that selectively inhibit COX-2 Celecoxib and rofecoxib
Drug that selectively inhibits COX 2 Celecoxib, valdecoxib, and rofecoxib
Class of antibiotics that have 10% cross sensitivity with penicillins Cephalosporins
SE of tPA Cerebral hemorrhage
This agent used to treat dry mouth in Sjögren's syndrome Cevimeline
Readily detected markers that may assist in diagnosis of the cause of a drug overdose include Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and pupillary responses
Major SE of bisphosphonates Chemical esophagitis
Drug that causes gray baby syndrome and aplastic anemia Chloramphenicol
Longer acting benzodiazepines used in the management of withdrawal states of alcohol and other drugs Chlordiazepoxide and Diazepam
1st generation antihistamine that is least sedating Chlorpheniramine or cyclizine
Sulfonylurea NOT recommended for elderly because of very long half life Chlorpropamide
First generation sulfonylurea Chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, tolazamide, etc.
During Phase I these agents worsen the paralysis by succinylcholine, but during phase II they reverse the blockade produced by succinylcholine Cholinesterase inhibitors
Reversal of blockade by neuromuscular blockers Cholinesterase inhibitors
Chemical antagonists that bind to the inhibitor of ACh Estrace and displace the enzyme (if aging has not occurred) Cholinesterase Regenerators
H2 blocker that causes the most interactions with other drugs Cimetidine
Inhibitors of CYP450 Cimetidine, ketoconazole, erythromycin, isoniazid and grapefruit
Toxicities include nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, leading to a severe interaction with aminoglycosides Cisplatin
Except for these agents all SSRI have significant inhibition of CytP450 enzymes Citalopram and its metabolite escitalopram
Class of anti-arrhythmics that has a pro-arrhythmic effect (CAST trial), therefore are used as last line agents Class IC (flecainide, propafenone, moricizine)
Beta blockers are used for which type of anginal attack Classic
The ratio of the rate of elimination of a drug to its plasma concentration Clearance (CL)
Drug notorious for causing pseudomembranous colitis Clindamycin
Antiestrogen drugs used for fertility and breast cancer respectively Clomiphene and tamoxifen
TCA used in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), most significant of TCA's for risk of seizure, weight gain, and neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms Clomipramine
Example of three antidepressants that are indicated for obsessive compulsive disorder Clomipramine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine
Benzodiazepine that has efficacy against absence seizures and in anxiety states, such as agoraphobia Clonazepam
Presynaptic Alpha 2 agonist used in HTN Clonidine, and methyldopa
Effective in preventing TIA's Clopidogrel and ticlopidine
Agent having no effect on D2 receptors, blocks D4, reserved for resistant schizophrenia, and can cause agranulocytosis Clozapine
Anti-psychotic not shown to cause tardive dyskinesia Clozapine
Regimen used for breast cancer CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) and tamoxifen if ER+
Additive effects when Sedative-Hypnotics used in combination with these agents CNS depressants
Most important toxic effects of most local anesthetics CNS toxicity
Local anesthetic with vasoconstrictive property, favored for head, neck, and pharyngeal surgery Cocaine
Commonly abused LA which has cardiovascular toxicity including severe hypertension with cerebral hemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction Cocaine
Overdoses of this agent with powerful vasoconstrictive action may result in fatalities from arrhythmias, seizures, respiratory depression, or severe HTN (MI and stroke) Cocaine "super-speed"
These LA's have surface activity Cocaine and benzocaine
Moderate opioid agonists Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone
Three C's associated with TCA toxicity Coma, Convulsions, Cardiac problems (arrhythmias and wide QRS)
Constant low dose of estrogen and increasing dose of progestin for 21 days (last 5 days are sugar pills or iron prep) Combination oral contraceptives (OC)
Ability to bind reversibly to the same site as the drug and without activating the effector system Competitive antagonist
SE of CCB Constipation, edema, and headache
Regimen used for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma COP (cyclophosphamide, oncovin(vincristine), and prednisone)
Drugs that can be used for infantile spasms Corticosteroids
Short acting GC's Cortisone and hydrocortisone (equivalent to cortisol)
ACTH analog used for diagnosis of patients with corticosteroid abnormality Cosyntropin
Difference between COX 1 and COX 2 " "COX 1 is found throughout
the body and COX 2 is only
in inflammatory tissue"
Plasma concentration of a drug at a given time Cp
Product of proinsulin cleavage used to assess insulin abuse C-peptide
SE of niacin Cutaneous flush
Toxicity caused by nitroprusside and treatment Cyanide toxicity treated with sodium thiosulfate
Agent for pernicious anemia Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)
Agent used for acute muscle spasm Cyclobenzaprine
Anticancer drug also used in RA, produces acrolein in urine that leads to hemorrhagic cystitis Cyclophosphamide
H1 blocker that is also a serotonin antagonist Cyproheptadine
Anti-androgen used for hirsutism in females Cyproterone acetate
T3 compound less widely used Cytomel
DOC for malignant hyperthermia by acting on the sacroplasmic reticulum or skeletal muscle Dantrolene
DOC for malignant hyperthermia that may be caused by use of halogenated anesthetics Dantrolene
Drug used in neuroleptic malignant syndrome Dantrolene
Drug of choice for leprosy Dapsone
Most inhaled anesthetics SE Decrease arterial blood pressure
MOA of metformin Decreases hepatic glucose production and intestinal glucose absorption; increase insulin sensitivity
MOA of tetracycline Decreases protein synthesis by inhibiting 30S ribosome
Antidote used for iron salt toxicity Deferoxamine
Chelating agent used in acute iron toxicity Deferoxamine
MOA of thrombolytics Degradation of fibrin clots and are administered
Antivirals that are teratogens Delavirdine, efavirenz, and ribavirin
Used for SIADH Demeclocycline
Common mechanism by which overdose result in death Depression of medullary and cardiovascular centers
SE of gold salts Dermatitis of the mouth aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis
Pungent inhaled anesthetic which leads to high incidence of coughing and vasospasm Desflurane
Synthetic analog of ADH hormone used for diabetes insipidus and nocturnal enuresis Desmopressin (DDAVP)
ADH agonist used for pituitary diabetes insipidus Desmopressin (DDAVP)
May protect against doxorubicin toxic by scavenging free radicals Dexrazoxane
Amphetamine agents Dextroamphetamines and methamphetamine
These agents are used as antitussive Dextromethorphan, Codeine
Benzodiazepine with useful relaxant effects in skeletal muscle spasticity of central origin Diazepam
DOC for status epilepticus Diazepam
Facilitates GABA presynaptic inhibition Diazepam
Agents having active metabolites, long half lives, and a high incidence of adverse effects Diazepam, Flurazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and clorazepate
NSAID also available as an ophthalmic preparation Diclofenac
Reduce transient hyper GI motility Dicyclomine, methscopolamine
Anti-viral with a dose limiting toxicity of pancreatitis Didanosine
Non-steroidal estrogen agonist causes clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in daughters of women who used it during pregnancy Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Antidote for digoxin toxicity Digibind
Antidote used for digitalis toxicity Digibind (also need to d/c digoxin, normalize K+, and lidocaine if pt. Is arrhythmic)
Drug used supraventricular arrhythmias Digoxin
H1 antagonist used in motion sickness Dimenhydrinate, meclizine, and other 1st generation
Antidote for arsenic, mercury, lead, and gold poisoning Dimercaprol
Antidote used for lead poisoning Dimercaprol, EDTA
1st generation antihistamine that is highly sedating Diphendydramine
Prototype antagonist of H1 and H2 receptors Diphenhydramine and impromidine respectively
These agents are used as antidiarrheal Diphenoxylate, Loperamide
Prevents thrombosis in patients with artificial heart valve Dipyridamole
Agent used in the treatment of alcoholism, if alcohol is consumed concurrently, acetaldehyde builds up and results in nausea, headache, flushing, and hypotension Disulfiram
Agents that inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase Disulfiram, metronidazole, certain sulfonylureas and cephalosporins
Metronidazole SE if given with alcohol Disulfiram-like reaction
Beta 1 agonists used in acute CHF Dobutamine and dopamine
5ht-3 antagonist that has been associated with QRS and QTc prolongation and should not be used in patients with heart disease Dolasetron
These agents are congeners of Amphetamine DOM, STP, MDA, and MDMA "ecstasy"
Hormone inhibiting prolactin release Dopamine
TCA with greatest sedation of this group, and marked antimuscarinic effects, used for sleep Doxepin
Antipsychotics, reserpine at high doses, and MPTP (by-product of illicit meperidine analog) and is irreversible Drug induced Parkinsonism
Angiotensin receptor blockers do NOT cause Dry cough
SE of ACE inhibitors Dry cough, hyperkalemia
Toxicity of organophosphate: DUMBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, salivation, and sweating)
SE of Amiodarone Dysfunction, photosensitivity, skin (blue smurf syndrome), Pulmonary fibrosis, thyroid and corneal deposits
Antiglaucoma organophosphate Echothiophate
Median effective dose required for an effect in 50% of the population ED50
SE of Thiazolindinediones Edema, mild anemia; interaction with drugs that undergo CytP450 3A4 metabolism
Indirect-Acting ACh Agonist, alcohol, short DOA and used in diagnosis of myasthenia gravis Edrophonium
Ability of drug to produce a biologic effect Efficacy
Population group especially sensitive to side effects of antidepressants Elderly patients
Inhaled anesthetics are myocardial depressants Enflurane and halothane
Inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), used as adjuncts in Parkinson's dx and cause acute hepatic failure (monitor LFT's) Entacapone and Tolcapone
Long acting sympathomimetic, sometimes used to improve urinary continence in children and elderly with enuresis Ephedrine
This is the drug of choice for anaphylactic shock Epinephrine
Nonselective alpha agonists that increases outflow, probably via the uveoscleral veins Epinephrine, dipivefrin
Agents for reduction of postpartum bleeding Ergonovine and ergotamine
DOC for Legionnaires' disease Erythromycin
Agent used for anemias associated with renal failure Erythropoietin
Antidote used for beta agonist toxicity (eg. Metaproterenol) Esmolol
This parenteral beta blocker is a short acting Esmolol
Used intravenously for acute arrhythmias during surgery Esmolol
Slightly increased risk of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, heart disease (questionable), has beneficial effects on bone loss Estrogen
Used for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women Estrogen (HRT-Hormone replacement therapy)
Antidote used for methanol and ethylene glycol Ethanol
Agent with zero-order kinetics Ethanol
Agent that is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS) Ethanol
These agents are CNS depressants Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines
Estrogen mostly used in oral contraceptives (OC) Ethinyl estradiol and mestranol
Drugs of choice for absence seizures Ethosuximide and valproic acid
Only bisphosphonates available IV Etidronate
Bisphosphonates that cannot be used on continuous basis because it caused osteomalacia Etidronate
The most important sign of withdrawal syndrome Excessive CNS stimulation (seizures)
New class of drugs that works by inhibiting absorption of intestinal cholesterol and can be given concurrently with the Statins Ezetimibe (Zetia)
Opioid associated with respiratory depression, but is used in high risk patients who may not survive full general anesthetia Fentanyl
Opioid available trans-dermally Fentanyl
Agent to treat hypochromic microcytic anemias Ferrous sulfate
2nd generation antihistamines Fexofenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine
5 alpha-reductase inhibitor used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and male pattern baldness Finasteride (Proscar and Propecia respectively)
Generation of antihistamine that has the most CNS effects First generation due to being more lipid-soluble
Constant percentage of substrate metabolized per unit time First order kinetics
The elimination of drug that occurs before it reaches the systemic circulation First pass effect
SE of AGI's Flatulence (do not use beano to tx), diarrhea, abdominal cramps
Mineralocorticoids Fludrocortisone and deoxycorticosterone
Antidote used for benzodiazepine toxicity Flumazenil
Antidote to benzodiazepine overdose (antagonist that reverses the CNS effects) Flumazenil
Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, it accelerates recovery from benzodiazepine overdose Flumazenil
"Date rape drug" Flunitrazepam (rohypnol)
Toxic to the liver, kidney, lungs, bone marrow, peripheral nerves, and cause brain damage in animals, sudden death has occurred following inhalation Fluorocarbons and Industrial solvents
SSRI with long T1/2 and can be administered once weekly for maintenance, not acute tx Fluoxetine
SSRI's less likely to cause a withdrawal syndrome Fluoxetine
SSRI indicated for premenstrual dysphoric disorder Fluoxetine (Sarafem)
Anti-psychotics available in depot preparation Fluphenazine and haloperidol
Anti-androgen used for prostate cancer Flutamide (Eulexin)
Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does NOT reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy Folic acid
Drug that inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase and is used in ethylene glycol exposure Fomepizole
Ability of a drug to produce 100% of the maximum response regardless of the potency Full agonist
Anti-seizure drugs used also for pain of neuropathic orgin Gabapentin
MOA for benzodiazepines and barbiturates GABA-related targets
DOC for CMV retinitis Ganciclovir
Antivirals associated with neutropenia Ganciclovir, zidovudine, saquinavir, and interferon
GnRH antagonist with more immediate effects, used for infertility Ganirelix
COX 2 inhibitors may have reduced risk of Gastric ulcers and GI Bleeding
Agent used neutropenia especially after chemotherapy G-CSF (filgrastim) and GM-CSF (sargramostim)
Methyldopa is contraindicated in Geriatrics due to its CNS (depression) effects
Pneumonic for 3 zones of adrenal cortex GFR
SE of Aspirin GI bleeding
SE of phenytoin Gingival hyperplasia
SE of phenytoin Gingival hyperplasia, nystagmus, diplopia and ataxia
Ultra long acting insulin, has over a day duration of action Glargine (Lantus)
Epinephrine and dipivefrin are used for Glaucoma
3 zones of adrenal cortex and their products Glomerulosa (mineralocorticoids), fasciculata (glucocorticoid
Antidote for beta-blockers and hypoglycemia Glucagon
Hyperglycemic agent that increases cAMP and results in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, reverses hypoglycemia, also used to reverse severe beta-blocker overdose and smooth muscle relaxation Glucagon
Used for Addison's disease, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), inflammation, allergies, and asthma (as a local inhalation) Glucocorticoids
Products of Phase II conjugation Glucuronate, acetic acid, and glutathione sulfate
Important in synthesis of glucose to glycogen in the liver GLUT 2
Important in muscle and adipose tissue for glucose transport across muscles and TG storage by lipoprotein lipase activation GLUT 4
Drugs available in combination with metformin Glyburide, glipizide, and rosiglitazone
Second generation sulfonylurea Glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, etc.
SE seen only in men with administration of ketoconazole Gynecomastia
Common SE of spironolactone Gynecomastia and hyperkalemia
SE of spironolactone Gynecomastia hyperkalemia, and impotence
Time it takes for amount of drug to fall to half of its value, constant in first order kinetics (majority of drugs) Half-life (T1/2)
SE of ergot alkaloids Hallucinations resembling psychosis
Agent more frequently associated with extrapyramidal side effects that can be treated with benzodiazepine, diphenhydramine or muscarinic blocker Haloperidol
Antipsychotic having the weakest autonomic effects Haloperidol
Agents used in Tourette's dx Haloperidol or pimozide
Inhaled anesthetic that may sensitize the myocardium to arrhythmogenic effects of catecholamines and has produced hepatitis Halothane
Inhaled anesthetics metabolized by liver enzymes which has a major role in the toxicity of these agents Halothane and methoxyflurane
Anticoagulant of choice in pregnancy Heparin
SE of heparin Heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Main route of metabolism for benzodiazepines Hepatic
Most frequent route of metabolism Hepatic enzymes
Reason troglitazone was withdrawn from market Hepatic toxicity
SE of acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity
Most commonly abused in health care professionals Heroin, morphine, oxycodone, meperidine and fentanyl
Prototype ganglion blocker Hexamethonium
Drug with a high margin of safety High therapeutic index
Common SE of tamoxifen and raloxifene Hot flashes
Direct vasodilator of arteriolar smooth muscle Hydralazine
Prevention of cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis Hydration and mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA)
Interferes with activity of T-lymphocytes Hydroxychloroquine
Anti-malarial drug used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Hydroxychloroquine
Antihistamine that can be used for anxiety and insomnia and is not addictive hydroxyzine (Atarax)
This may antagonize activity of local anesthetics Hypercalcemia
This may enhance activity of local anesthetics Hyperkalemia
Side effects occuring in antipsychotics that block dopamine Hyperprolactinemia, menorrhea, galactorrhea, confusion, mood changes, decreased sexual interest, and weight gain
Alpha 1 agonist toxicity Hypertension
Condition will result from in combination of MAOI with tyramine containing foods (ex. wine, cheese, and pickled meats) Hypertensive crisis
SE of minoxidil Hypertrichosis
SE of thiazide (HCTZ) diuretics Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and hyperglycemia
SE of loop (furosemide) diuretics Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and ototoxicity
Major SE of insulin Hypoglycemia
Common SE of sulfonylureas, repaglinide, and nateglinide Hypoglycemia
Digoxin toxicity can be precipitated by Hypokalemia
Routes of administration of heparin IM (only LMW) and IV
TCA used in chronic pain, enuresis, and ADD Imipramine
Major nutritional side effect of bile acid-binding resins Impair absorption of fat soluble vitamin absorption (A,D,E,K)
Barbiturates MOA Increase the DURATION of GABA-mediated chloride ion channels
"MOA for benzodiazepines
" increase the FREQUENCY of GABA-mediated chloride ion channel opening
Major drug interaction with Quinidine Increases concentration of Digoxin
Shock due to septicemia or myocardial infarction is made worse by Increasing afterload and tissue perfusion declines
MOA of Cardiac glycosides (eg. digoxin) Indirectly increase intracellular calcium and cardiac contractility by inhibit Na+/K+ ATPase
Agent used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus Indomethacin
NSAIDS used in gout Indomethacin and phenylbutazone
Atropine fever is the most dangerous effect and can be lethal in this population group Infants
Contraindications to use of atropine Infants, closed angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy
Proteins that prevent action of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) Infliximab and etanercept
These drugs strongly potentiate and prolong effect of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) Inhaled anesthetics, especially isoflurane, aminoglycosides, and antiarrhythmic
Drug or foods (grapefruit juice) that increase statin effect Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4
MOA of sulfonamides Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
MOA of quinolones Inhibit DNA gyrase
MOA of thiazide diuretics Inhibit Na+/Cl- cotransport
MOA of corticosteroids" inhibit phospholipase A2
MOA of NSAIDS inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase (cox)
MOA of Leflunomide (newer agent) Inhibiting Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase which leads to decreased pyrimidine synthesis
MOA of erythromycin Inhibition of protein synthesis at the 50s subunit of ribosome
inhibits HMG COA reductase
MOA of loop diuretics inhibits Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport
MOA of Bisphosphonates Inhibits osteoclast bone resorption
MOA of sildenafil (Viagra) Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, enhancing effects of nitric oxide-activated increases in cGMP
PTU (propylthiouracil) MOA Inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis by blocking iodination of the tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin
MOA utilizes transmembrane receptors Insulin
MOA of both generations Insulin release from pancreas by modifying K+ channels
MOA of repaglinide Insulin release from pancreas; faster and shorter acting than sulfonylurea
MOA of nateglinide Insulin secretagogue
Used for hairy cell leukemia; it stimulates NK cells Interferon alpha
Treatment of patients with prior episodes of thrombocytopenia after a cycle of cancer chemotherapy Interleukin 11 (oprelvekin)
Can be effective for short term therapy of thyroid storm, but after several weeks of therapy causes an exacerbation of hyperthyroidism Iodide salts
Radio contrast media that inhibits the conversion of T4 to T3 Ipodate
Muscarinic antagonist used in asthma Ipratropium
Bronchodilation in asthma and COPD Ipratropium
MOA of aspirin Irreversibly blocking cyclooxygenase
Beta cells are found Islets of Langerhans
Inhaled anesthetic causes peripheral vasodilation Isoflurane
This route is associated with rapid tolerance and psychologic dependence IV administration
Drugs of choice for status epilepticus IV diazepam or phenytoin (for prolonged therapy not acute)
This produces "dissociative anesthesia", is a cardiovascular stimulant which may increases intracranial pressure, and hallucinations occur during recovery Ketamine
Agents used in treatment of carcinoid tumor Ketanserin cyproheptadine, and phenoxybenzamine
5HT2 antagonist mediate synaptic excitation in the CNS and smooth muscle contraction Ketanserin, cyproheptadine, and ergot alkaloids (partial agonist of alpha and serotonin receptors)
Antifungal agent used for inhibition of all gonadal and adrenal steroids Ketoconazole
NSAID available orally, IM and ophthalmically Ketoralac
NSAID that is used for acute condition, such as pre-op anesthesia and has limited duration (<5 days) of use due to nephrotoxicity Ketoralac
SE of colchicine Kidney and liver toxicity
Major route of elimination for Lithium Kidneys
Combined alpha and beta blocking agents that may have application in treatment of CHF Labetalol and carvedilol
Most important potential SE of metformin Lactic acidosis
Converts asparagine to aspartate and ammonia, denies cancer cells of essential AA (asparagine) L-asparaginase
Dose which is lethal to 50% of the population LD50
Agent used in drug therapy of Parkinson's instead of Dopamine which has low bioavailability and does not cross the BBB L-dopa
Alternative anticoagulant used if HIT develops Lepirudin
Antidote for methotrexate toxicity Leucovorin
GnRH agonist used for infertility or different types of CA depending on pulsatile or steady usage respectively Leuprolide
Drug is used with testosterone for male fertility Leuprolide
Anti-Parkinson's drug which increases intraocular pressure and is contraindicated in closed angle glaucoma Levodopa
Monitoring parameter to obtain before initiation of STATINS LFT's
DOC for management of acute Ventricular arrhythmias Lidocaine
Fibrates (gemfibrozil) increase activity of Lipoprotein lipase
Very rapid acting insulin, having fastest onset and shortest duration of action Lispro (Humalog)
DOC for bipolar affective disorder Lithium
Patients being treated with lithium, who are dehydrated, or taking diuretics concurrently, could develop Lithium toxicity
Exogenous insulin Little C-peptide
Barbiturates decrease the effectiveness of many other drugs via this pharmacokinetics property Liver enzyme INDUCTION
Major SE of zileuton Liver toxicity
SE of mirtazapine Liver toxicity, increased serum cholesterol
Target plasma concentration times (volume of distribution divided by bioavailability) Loading dose (Cp*(Vd/F))
Constant proportion of cell population killed rather than a constant number Log-kill hypothesis
Associated with an increased incidence of cataracts in patients treated for glaucoma Long acting cholinesterase inhibitors
Treatment of withdrawal syndrome involves Long-acting sedative-hypnotic or a gradual reduction of dose, clonidine or propranolol
Benzodiazepine that undergo extrahepatic conjugation (which are useful in older or hepatically impaired) Lorazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam
Orthostatic hypotension and QT prolongation Low potency and risperidone
Drug with a narrow margin of safety Low therapeutic index
Reduced seizure threshold Low-potency typical antipsychotics and clozapine
Ergot alkaloid used as an illicit drug LSD
Most widely used thyroid drugs such as Synthroid and Levoxyl contain L-thyroxine (T4)
SE of hydralazine Lupus-like syndrome
SE of procainamide Lupus-like syndrome
Antidote useful for some drug induced Torsade de pointes Magnesium sulfate
Agent to treat torsades de pointes Magnesium sulfate
Concentration in the plasma times (clearance divided by bioavailability) Maintenance dose (Cp*(CL/F))
Osmotic diuretic used for increased intracranial pressure Mannitol
Antidepressant associated with seizures and cardiotoxicity Maprotiline
THC is active ingredient, SE's include impairment of judgment, and reflexes, decreases in blood pressure and psychomotor performance occur Marijuana
MOA action of cromolyn Mast cell stabilizer
Important drug interaction with chloral hydrate May displace coumadin from plasma proteins
Alkylating agent, vesicant that causes tissue damage with extravasation Mechlorethamine
MOPP regimen used in Hodgkin's disease (HD) Mechlorethamine+ oncovorin (vincristine)+ procarbazine, and prednisone
Anemia caused by trimethoprim Megaloblastic anemia
System that increases in activity with chronic exposure and may contribute to tolerance MEOS
All opioids except this agent (which has a muscarinic blocking action) cause pupillary constriction Meperidine
Use of this opioid with MAOI can lead to hyperpyrexic coma, and with SSRI's can lead to serotonin syndrome Meperidine
Biguanide Metformin
Opioid used in the management of withdrawal states Methadone
Treatment for opioid addiction Methadone, followed by slow dose reduction
Penicillins active against penicillinase secreting bacteria Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin
Thioamide agents used in hyperthyroidism Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU)
Causes bone marrow suppression Methotrexate
Fluoride released by metabolism of this inhaled anesthetic may cause renal insufficiency Methoxyflurane
Organophosphate anthelmintic agent with long DOA Metrifonate
DOC for tx of pseudomembranous colitis Metronidazole
DOC for giardia, bacterial vaginosis, pseudomembranous colitis, and trichomonas Metronidazole
Used for Cushing's syndrome (increased corticosteroid) and sometimes for adrenal function test Metyrapone
"Benzodiazepine that is used for anesthesia
" Midazolam
Benzodiazepine used adjunctively in anesthesia Midazolam
Chronic orthostatic hypotension can be treated with Midodrine
Antiprogestin used as potent antagonist of GC receptor Mifepristone
Anti-progesterone used as abortifacient Mifepristone (RU-486)
Inversely related to potency of anesthetics Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)
Oral antibiotic of choice for moderate inflammatory acne Minocycline
Arterial vasodilator that works by opening K+ channels Minoxidil
Tolerance to all effects of opioid agonists can develop except Miosis and constipation
Antidepressant with MOA as alpha 2 antagonist, has effects on both 5-HT and NE, blocks histamine receptors, and is sedating Mirtazapine
Non-depolarizing antagonist has short duration Mivacurium
Most useful in patients with significant anxiety, phobic features, hypochondriasis, and resistant depression Monamine oxidase inhibitors
Opioid that can be given PO, by epidural, and IV, which helps to relieve the dyspnea of pulmonary edema Morphine
Opioids used in anesthesia Morphine and fentanyl
Strong opioid agonists Morphine, methadone, meperidine, and fentanyl
Receptors for serotonin (5HT-1) are located Mostly in the brain, and they mediate synaptic inhibition via increased K+ conductance
Agents may exacerbate tardive dyskinesias (may be irreversible and there is no treatment) Muscarinic blockers
Potassium sparing diuretics inhibit Na+/K+ exchange
Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity N-acetylcysteine
Antidote used for acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
This beta blocker is the longest acting Nadolol
Opioid antagonist that is given IV and had short DOA Naloxone
This agent may cause more severe, rapid and intense symptoms to a recovering addict Naloxone
Antidote used for opioid toxicity Naloxone (IV), naltrexone (PO)
Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs Naltrexone
Anabolic steroid that has potential for abuse Nandrolone and stanozolol
Amino acid derivative Nateglinide
Most common SE of fibrates Nausea
Antidepressant which is inhibitor of CYP450 enzymes and may be associated with hepatic failure Nefazodone
Carbamate with intermediate action postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention Neostigmine
Common toxicities of cisplatin Nephro and ototoxicity
Two toxicities of aminoglycosides nephro and ototoxicity
Toxicity of amphotericin Nephrotoxicity
Agent used in acutely decompensated CHF resembling natriuretic peptide Nesiritide (Natrecor)
State of analgesia and amnesia produced when fentanyl is used with droperidol and nitrous oxide Neuroleptanesthesia
Structurally related to acetylcholine, used to produce muscle paralysis in order to facilitate surgery or artifical ventilation. Full doses lead to respiratory paralysis and require ventilation Neuromuscular blocking drugs
SE for ganciclovir Neutro, leuko and thrombocytopenia
SE for ticlopidine Neutropenia and agranulocytosis
Anti-viral agents associated with Stephen Johnson syndrome Nevirapine, amprenavir
Decreases liver triglycerol synthesis Niacin
W/D from this drug causes anxiety and mental discomfort Nicotine
CCB with predominate effect on arteriole dilation Nifedipine
Drug used in Chagas disease Nifurtimox
Antidote used for cyanide poisoning Nitrites
Nitrate used for acute anginal attacks Nitroglycerin sublingual tablets
IV Drug used Hypertensive Crisis Nitroprusside
Drug used in ergot alkaloids overdose, ischemia and gangrene Nitroprusside
Inhaled anesthetic with a low blood/gas partition coefficient Nitrous oxide
Inhaled anesthetics, less likely to lower blood pressure than other agents, and has the smallest effect on respiration Nitrous oxide
Prolonged exposure to this inhaled anesthetic may lead to megaloblastic anemia Nitrous oxide
Inhalant anesthetics NO, chloroform, and diethyl ether
Ability to bind to either the same or different site as the drug Noncompetitive antagonist
Tubocurarine is the prototype, pancuronium, atracurium, vecuronium are newer short acting agent, produce competitive block at end plate nicotinic receptor, causing flaccid paralysis Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers
These prevent the action of Ach at the skeletal muscle endplate to produce a "surmountable blockade," effect is reversed by cholinesterase inhibitors (ex. neostigmine or pyridostigmine) Nondepolarizing type antagonists
Prototypical drug is atropine Nonselective Muscarinic Antagonists
Neurotransmitters affected by the action of antidepressants Norepinephrine and serotonin
Endogenous insulin Normal C-peptide
Secondary amines that have less sedation and more excitation effect Nortriptyline, Desipramine
Class of drugs that reversibly inhibit COX NSAIDS
Somatostatin (SRIF) analog used for acromegaly, carcinoid, glucagonoma and other GH producing pituitary tumors Octreotide
DOC of chemo induced nausea and vomiting Odansetron
Anti-emetics used in association with anti-cancer drugs that are 5-HT3 (serotonin receptor subtype ) antagonist Odansetron, granisetron
Newer atypical antipsychotic used for bipolar disorder, known to cause weight gain, and adversely affect diabetes Olanzapine
Newer atypical antipsychotics that also improve some of the negative symptoms and help acute agitation Olanzapine, aripiprazole, and sertindole
Extrapyramidal dysfunction is more common with these agents, which block this subtype of dopamine receptor Older antipsychotic agents, D2 receptors
Antipsychotics that reduce positive symptoms only Older antipsychotics
"5HT-3 antagonist used in chemotherapeutic induced
emesis " "Ondansetron, granisetron,
dolasetron and alosetron "
SE of these drugs include dependence, withdrawal syndrome, sedation, euphoria, respiratory depression nausea and vomiting, constipation, biliary spasm, increased ureteral and bladder tone, and reduction in uterine tone Opioid Analgesics
Route of administration of warfarin Oral
Nitrate used to prevent further attacks Oral and transdermal forms of nitroglycerin
Treatment of resistant pseudomembranous colitis ORAL vancomycin
Cause dizziness, tachycardia, hypotension, and flushing Organic nitrites
Oral contraceptive available in a transdermal patch Ortho-Evra
SE of alpha blockers Orthostatic hypotension (especially with first dose) and reflex tachycardia
Some side effects of corticosteroids Osteopenia, impaired wound healing, inc. risk of infection, inc. appetite, HTN, edema, PUD, euphoria, psychosis
Uses of bisphosphonates Osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and osteolytic bone lesions, and hypercalcemia from malignancy
Aminoglycosides used with loop diuretics potentiate adverse effect Ototoxicity
Leads to respiratory depression progressing to coma and death Overdose of opioids
Different steps of Phase I Oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis
Cystitis, postoperative bladder spasms, or incontinence Oxybutynin, dicyclomine
Drug that causes contraction of the uterus Oxytocin
Interact with microtubules (but unlike vinca which prevent disassembly of tubules), it stabilizes tubulin and cells remain frozen in metaphase Paclitaxel (taxol)
Agent can blocking muscarinic receptors Pancuronium
Some of SSRIs' therapeutic effects beside depression Panic attacks, social phobias, bulimia nervosa, and PMDD premenstrual dysphoric disorder), OCD
The most toxic organophosphate Parathion
SE of acetazolamide Paresthesias, alkalization of the urine (which may ppt. Ca salts), hypokalemia, acidosis, and encephalopathy in patients with hepatic impairment
Ability to produce less than 100% of the response Partial agonist
Treatments available for nicotine addiction Patches, gum, nasal spray, psychotherapy, and bupropion
Most dangerous of the currently popular hallucinogenic drugs, OD leads to nystagmus, marked hypertension, and seizures, presence of both horizontal and vertical nystagmus is pathognomonic PCP
Antidote used in poisonings: copper (Wilson's disease), lead, mercury, and arsenic Penicillamine
Chelating agent used in Wilson's disease Penicillamine
Methylxanthine derivative used as a remedy for intermittent claudication Pentoxifylline
SE of INH Peripheral neuritis and hepatitis
The most common neurologic abnormality in chronic alcoholics Peripheral neuropathy (also excessive alcohol use is associated with HTN, anemia, and MI)
Used in pediatrics to maintain patency of ductus arteriosis PGE1
Approved for use in severe pulmonary HTN PGI2 (epoprostenol)
This step of metabolism makes drug more hydrophilic and hence augments elimination Phase I
DOC for febrile seizures Phenobarbital
Nonselective alpha-blocking drug, long acting and irreversible, and used to treat pheochromocytoma. Blocks 5-HT, so occasionaly used for carcinoid tumor. Blocks H1 and used in mastocytosis Phenoxybenzamine
Non-selective Alpha1blockers use to treat pheochromocytoma Phenoxybenzamine
Nonselective alpha-blocking drug, short acting and reversible, used for rebound HTN from rapid clonidine withdrawal, and Raynaud's phenomena Phentolamine
For rebound HTN from rapid clonidine withdrawal Phentolamine
Alpha agonist used to produce mydriasis and reduce conjunctival itching and congestion caused by irritation or allergy, it does not cause cycloplegia Phenylephrine
DOC for digoxin induced arrhythmias Phenytoin
Anti-seizure agent that exhibits non-linear metabolism, highly protein bound, causes fetal hydantoin syndrome, and stimulates hepatic metabolism Phenytoin
Enzyme which theophylline inhibits Phosphodiesterase
Antidote used for anticholinergic poisoning Physostigmine
Treatment of atropine overdose and glaucoma (because lipid soluable). Enters the CNS rapidly and has a stimulant effect, which may lead to convulsions Physostigmine
Only direct acting agent that is very lipid soluble and used in glaucoma Pilocarpine
Cholinomimetics that increase outflow, open trabecular meshwork, and cause ciliary muscle contraction Pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine
Beta blockers partial agonist activity (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity) cause some bronchodilation and may have an advantage in treating patients with asthma Pindolol and acebutolol
Thiazolidinediones Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone, Troglitazone (withdrawn/d from market)
Aspirin reduces mortality in unstable angina by Platelet aggregation inhibition
Type of resistance found with vancomycin Point mutation
SE of methyldopa Positive Comb's test, depression
Activation of these receptors open K+ ion channels to cause membrane hyperpolarization Postsynaptic Mu receptors
SE of nitrates Postural hypotension, reflex tachycardia, hot flashes, and throbbing headache due to meningeal artery dilation
MOA of class III antiarrhythmics Potassium channel blockers
Amount of drug necessary to elicit a biologic effect Potency
Aspirin is contraindicated in children with viral infection Potential for development of Reye's syndrome
This agent regenerates active cholinesterase and is a chemical antagonist used to treat organophosphate exposure Pralidoxime
Used to treat patients exposed to insecticides such as parathion Pralidoxime
Non ergot agents used as first-line therapy in the initial management of Parkinson's Pramipexole and ropinirole
Alpha 1selective blockers Prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin (-AZOSIN ending)
Selective Alpha 1 blocker used for hypertension, BPH, may cause first dose orthostatic hypotension Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
Drug used in cancer therapy causes Cushing-like symptoms Prednisone
Intermediate acting GC's Prednisone, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, and triamcinolone
COX 2 inhibitors should be used cautiously in pts with Pre-existing cardiac or renal disease
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors are contraindicated in Pregnancy
Fibrates are contraindicated in Pregnancy
Warfarin is contraindicated in Pregnancy
Ace inhibitors are contraindicated in pregnancy and with K+
Activation of these receptors close Ca2+ ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release Presynaptic mu, delta, and kappa receptors
LA causing methemoglobinemia Prilocaine
Drug used in exoerythrocytic cycle of malaria Primaquine
CCB are DOC for Prinzmetal's angina
Agent used to treat chronic gout by increasing uric acid secretion Probenecid and sulfinpyrazone
Produces disulfiram-like reaction with ethanol Procarbazine
Alpha cells in the pancreas Produce glucagon
Beta cells in the pancreas Produce insulin
Delta cells in the pancreas Produce Somatostatin
Specific pharmacokinetic characteristic of amiodarone Prolonged half-life, up to six weeks
Side effect of sotalol prolongs QT and PR interval
Limiting side effect of Quinidine Prolongs QT interval
Produces both rapid anesthesia and recovery, has antiemetic activity and commonly used for outpatient surgery, may cause marked hypotension Propofol
Weak opioid agonist, poor analgesic, its overdose can cause severe toxicity including respiratory depression, circulatory collapse, pulmonary edema, and seizures Propoxyphene
This beta blocker is highly lipid soluble and may account for side effects such as nightmares Propranolol
Non-selective Beta-blocker also used for migraine prophylaxis Propranolol
Agent effective in physiologic and essential tremor Propranolol
Prostaglandins that cause abortions Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol) PGE2, and PGF2alpha
This agent cause increased aqueous outflow Prostaglandin PGF2a
Antidote used for heparin toxicity Protamine
Antidote to reverse actions of heparin Protamine sulfate
HIV antiviral class known to have severe drug interactions by causing inhibition of metabolism Protease inhibitors
Chronic high dose abuse of nicotine leads to Psychotic state, overdose causes agitation, restlessness, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hyperreflexia, and seizures
Thioamide less likely to cross placenta, inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 in high doses, and should be used with extreme caution in pregnancy PTU
Thrombolytics are used for Pulmonary embolism and DVT
Treatment with cancer chemotherapy at high doses every 3-4 weeks, too toxic to be used continuously Pulse therapy
Treatment of myasthenia gravis Pyridostigmine
Increased risk of developing cataracts Quetiapine
Permanently cures thyrotoxicosis, patients will need thyroid replacement therapy thereafter. Contraindicated in pregnancy Radioactive iodine
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used for prevention of osteoporosis and currently being tested for treatment of breast cancer (Stars study) Raloxifene
Increase bone density, also being tested for breast CA tx. Raloxifene (SERM-selective estrogen receptor modulator)
SE of clonidine Rebound HTN, sedation, dry mouth
Common side effect of Rifampin Red urine discoloration
Newer alpha 2 agonist (apraclonidine and brimonidine) treat glaucoma Reduce aqueous synthesis
Sedative-Hypnotics action Reduce inhibition, suppress anxiety, and produce relaxation
Often mixed with local anesthetic to Reduce the loss from area of injection
Diuretics work in CHF by Reducing preload
Beta blockers work in CHF by Reducing progression of heart failure (never use in acute heart failure)
Rapid acting, crystalline zinc insulin used to reverse acute hyperglycemia Regular (Humulin R)
MOA of nitrates Relax vascular smooth muscle, at low doses dilate veins and at high doses dilate arterioles
Major effect of benzodiazepines on sleep at high doses REM is decreased
Meglitinide Repaglinide
Toxic effect of anticancer drug can be lessened by rescue agents Rescue therapy
The most important cause of acute deaths in cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity Respiratory failure
SE of hydroxychloroquine Retinal destruction and dermatitis
Concurrent use of fibrates and statins increases risk of Rhabdomyolysis
SE of HMG COA reductase inhibitors Rhabdomyolysis and Hepatotoxicity
DMARDs are slow acting drugs for Rheumatic disease
DOC for RSV Ribavirin
Meningitis prophylaxis in exposed patients Rifampin
Treatment for TB patients (think RIPE) Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol
Antipsychotic used in the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia Risperidone
Atypical antipsychotic causing high prolactin levels Risperidone
Long acting beta 2 agonist used in asthma Salmeterol
Longer acting Beta 2 agonists is recommended for prophylaxis of asthma Salmeterol
Treatment of motion sickness Scopolamine
Technique used to diagnose perianal itching, and the drug used to treat it "Scotch tape technique
and mebendazole"
Most common side effect of 1st generation antihistamines Sedation
SE of imipenem Seizures
MOA of Colchicine (used in acute gout) Selective inhibitor of microtubule assembly
Inhibitor of MAO type B which metabolizes dopamine, used adjunct to levodopa or as sole agent in newly diagnosed pt's Selegiline
GHRH analog used as diagnostic agent Sermorelin
MAOI should not be administered with SSRI's or potent TCA's due to development of this condition Serotonin syndrome
Antipsychotic that does not block muscarinic or histamine receptors, and it prolongs the QT interval Sertindole
Laboratory value required to be monitored for patients on valproic acid Serum ammonia and LFT's
Limiting adverse effect of ganglion blockade that patients usually are unable to tolerate Severe hypertension
Side effect of Mitomycin SEVERE myelosuppression
All antidepressants have roughly the same efficacy in treating depression, agents are chosen based on these criterion Side-effect profile and prior pt response
Beta 1 agonist toxicity Sinus tachycardia and serious arrhythmias
Beta 2 agonist toxicity Skeletal muscle tremor
Distribution of histamine receptors H1, H2, and H3 Smooth muscle; stomach, heart, and mast cells; nerve endings, CNS respectively
Antidote used for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Sodium bicarbonate
Mechanisms of action for Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine Sodium blockade
MOA of class I A (eg. Procainamide), class IB (eg. Lidocaine), and class IC (eg. Flecainide) antiarrhythmics Sodium channel blockers
Antidote for hyperkalemia sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
Somatotropin (GH) analog used in GH deficiency (dwarfism) Somatrem
Antiarrhythmic that exhibits Class II and III properties Sotalol
Agents acting in the CNS or in the skeletal muscle, used to reduce abnormally elevated tone caused by neurologic or muscle end plate disease Spasmolytic drugs
Selectivity of a drug for its receptor Specificity
Diuretic used to antagonize aldosterone receptors Spironolactone
Diuretic used to treat primary aldosteronism Spironolactone
Well-tolerated and are first-line antidepressants SSRI's, bupropion, and venlafaxine
Disease caused by excess ergot alkaloids St. Anthony's Fire
When the rate of drug input equals the rate of drug elimination Steady state
Causes acne, premature closure of epiphyses, masculinization in females, hepatic dysfunction, MI, and increases in libido and aggression Steroids
SE for Lamotrigine Stevens-Johnson syndrome
MOA of thiazolindinediones Stimulate PPAR-gamma receptor to regulate CHO and lipid metabolism
MOA and effect of nitric oxide Stimulates cGMP which leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation
Thrombolytic that can cause allergic reaction Streptokinase
Aminoglycoside that is least ototoxic Streptomycin
Only member of depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, causes fasciculation during induction and muscle pain after use Succinylcholine
One depolarizing blocker that causes continuous depolarization and results in muscle relaxation and paralysis, xcuses muscle pain postoperatively and myoglobinuria may occur Succinylcholine
Anti-biotic frequently used for chronic UTI prophylaxis sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim
Anti-rheumatic agent also used for ulcerative colitis Sulfasalazine
Anti-microbials that cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients Sulfonamides
Class of drugs that may cause cross-sensitivity with thiazide diuretics Sulfonamides
Triptan available in parenteral and nasal formulation Sumatriptan
5HT-1d agonist used for migraine headaches " Sumatriptan, naratriptan, and rizatriptan
Drug used for African sleeping sickness Suramin
Anti-estrogen used for estrogen receptor + breast cancer Tamoxifen
A1a-selective blocker used for BPH Tamsulosin (Flomax)
Median toxic dose required for a toxic effect in 50% of the population TD50
Beta 2 agonist used to suppress premature labor, but cardiac stimulatory effects may be hazardous to mother and fetus Terbutaline
Lethal arrhythmias resulting from concurrent therapy with azole fungals (metabolized by CYP 3A4) and these antihistamines which inhibit the 3A4 iso-enzyme. Terfenadine and astemizole (have been removed from the market)
Agents having higher sedation and antimuscarinic effects than other TCA's Tertiary amines
Bleomycin+vinblastine+etoposide+cisplatin produce almost a 100% response when all agents are used for this neoplasm Testicular cancer
Converted to more active form DHT by 5 alpha-reductase Testosterone
Agents used in Huntington's Disease Tetrabenazine (amine depleting drug), Haloperidol (antipsychotic)
Longer acting local anesthetics which are less dependent on vasoconstrictors Tetracaine and bupivacaine
Drug causes teeth discoloration Tetracycline
Drug increases the renal clearance hence decreases levels of lithium Theophylline
Window between therapeutic effect and toxic effect Therapeutic index
Site of action of loop diuretics Thick ascending limb
Anti-thyroid drugs Thioamides, iodides, radioactive iodine, and ipodate
Barbiturate used for the induction of anesthesia Thiopental
IV barbiturate used as a pre-op anesthetic Thiopental
Only phenothiazine not exerting antiemetic effects, can cause visual impairment due to retinal deposits, and high doses have been associated with ventricular arrhythmias Thioridazine
Antipsychotic having the strongest autonomic effects Thioridazine
SE of amrinone Thrombocytopenia
Other side effects of Quinidine Thrombocytopenic purpura, and CINCHONISM
Mechanism of action (MOA) utilizes intracellular receptors Thyroid and steroid hormones
Antiplatelet drug reserved for patients allergic to aspirin Ticlopidine
This beta blocker lacks local anesthetic activity (decreases protective reflexes and increases the risk of corneal ulceration) and used in treating glaucoma Timolol
These Beta blockers decrease aqueous secretion Timolol (nonselective), betaxolol (selective)
SE of salicylates Tinnitus, GI bleeding
Thrombolytic used for acute MI and ischemic (non hemorrhagic) CVA Tissue plasmin activator
Similar to clonidine and may cause hypotension Tizanidine
Nitrate free intervals are needed due to Tolerance
Occurs when sedative hypnotics are used chronically or at high doses Tolerance
Topical DOC in impetigo Topical mupirocin (Bactroban)
Newer estrogen receptor antagonist used in advanced breast cancer Toremifene (Fareston)
Life threatening cardiac event that prolong QT leads to Torsades de pointes
Antidepressant also used for sleep that causes priapism Trazodone
SE of lithium Tremor, sedation, ataxia, aphasia, thyroid enlargement, and reversible diabetes insipidus
Sedation is a common side effect of these drugs, they lower seizure threshold, uses include BAD, acute panic attacks, phobias, enuresis, and chronic pain and their overdose can be deadly Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)
Ganglionic blockers formerly used in HTN Trimethaphan, and hexamethonium
Agent with long duration of action and is sost likely to cause histamine release Tubocurarine
Long acting insulin Ultralente (humulin U)
MOA of general anesthetics Unclear, thought to increase the threshold for firing of CNS neurons
Removal of PCP may be aided Urinary acidification and activated charcoal or continual nasogastric suction
Major indication for H1 receptor antagonist Use in IgE mediated allergic reaction
Reason ergot alkaloids are contraindicated in pregnancy Uterine contractions
Agent that inhibits hepatic metabolism, is hepatotoxic and teratogen that can cause neural tube defects and gastrointestinal distress Valproic acid
Drug of choice for myoclonic seizures Valproic acid
Drugs of choice for generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures Valproic acid and Phenytoin
Anti-seizure drugs used also for bipolar affective disorder (BAD) Valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenytoin and gabapentin
Drug used for MRSA Vancomycin
Antibiotic causing red-man syndrome, and prevention "Vancomycin, infusion
at a slow rate and antihistamines"
Almost all local anesthetics have this property and sometimes require the administration of vasoconstrictors (ex. Epinephrine) to prolong activity Vasodilation
Antidepressant having stimulant effects similar to SSRI's and can increase blood pressure Venlafaxine
Antidepressant inhibiting norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine reuptake Venlafaxine
CCB contraindicated in CHF Verapamil
Microtubule inhibitor that causes peripheral neuropathy, foot drop (eg. ataxia), and "pins and needles" sensation Vincristine
Antidote used for warfarin toxicity Vitamin and Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Agent used for neurological deficits in megaloblastic anemia Vitamin B12
Vitamin given with calcium to ensure proper absorption Vitamin D
Antidote to reverse actions of warfarin Vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma
Relates the amount of drug in the body to the plasma concentration Volume of distribution (VD)
Vitamin K dependent anticoagulant Warfarin (PT)
Site of action of thiazide diuretics Work at early distal convoluted tubule
Allopurinol treats chronic gout by inhibiting Xanthine oxidase
Selective Alpha 2 blocker used for impotence (controversial effectiveness) Yohimbine
Pneumonic for beta receptors You have 1 heart (Beta 1) and 2 lungs (Beta 2)
Inhibitor of leukotrienes (LTD4) receptors and used in asthma Zafirlukast and montelukast
Drug elimination with a constant amount metabolized regardless of drug concentration Zero order kinetics
Inhibitor of lipoxygenase Zileuton
Syndrome of hypersecretion of gastric acid and pepsin usually caused by gastrinoma; it is associated with severe peptic ulceration and diarrhea Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Good hypnotic activity with less CNS SE than most benzodiazepines Zolpidem, zaleplon
Created by: HY90X



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