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68WM6-A&P 5

chemical neurotransmitter of the PNS acetylcholine
neuron that carries impulses toward the CNS from the PNS; sensory neuron afferent neuron
loss of sensation anesthesia
delicate, weblike membrane covering the brain arachnoid mater
glial cells astrocytes
nerve cell process that conducts impulses away from the cell body axon
norepinephrine and epinephrine catecholamines
fluid that fills the subarachnoid space in the brain and spinal cord and in the cerebral ventricles cerebrospinal fluid
a network of brain capillaries that are involved with the production of cerebrospinal fluid choroid plexus
a nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the cell body; branching and tree-like dendrite
skin surface area that is supplied by a single spinal nerve dermatome
outermost layer of the meninges dura mater
neuron that transmits impulses from the CNS to the PNS efferent neuron
chemical in CNS that influiences pain perception; natural painkiller endorphin
peptide chemical in CNS that acts as a natural painkiller enkephalins
increased sympathetic impulses allowing the body to deal with any type of stress fight or flight response
a region of gray nervous tissue in the PNS; nicknamed a "junction box" ganglia
a single unmyelinated neuron in the PNS; part of the "junction boxes" of the PNS ganglion
supporting cells of nervous tissue glia
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid; "water on the brain" hydrocephalus
nerves that conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons; central or connecting neurons interneuron
a collection of various small regions of the brain that act together to produce emotion and emotional response limbic system
fluid containing membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord meninges
one type of connective tissue found in the brain and spinal cord microglia
transmits nerve impuldes from the brain and spinal cord to musclus and glandular epithlial tissues motor neuron
lipid substance found in the sheath around some nerve fibers myelin
nerve sheath neurilemma
nerve cells, including its processes neurons
chemicals by which neurons communicate nerotransmitter
indentations found between adjacent schwann cells nodes of ranvier
hormone secreted by adrenal medulla; released by sympathetic nervous system; primary nerotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system norepinephrine
a cell that holds nerve fibers together and produces the myelin sheath around axons in the CNS oligodendrocyte
part of the autonomic nervous system; ganglia are connected to the brainstem and the sacral segments of the spinal cord; controls many visceral effectors under normal conditions parasympathetic nervous system
the vascular innermost covering of the brain and spinal cord pia mater
autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses from a ganglion to cardiac or smooth muscle or glandular epithelial tissue postganglionic neuron
a neuron situated distal to a synapse postsynaptic neuron
autonomic neuron that conducts nerve impulses between the spinal cord and a gangion preganglionic neuron
a neuron situated proximal to a synapse presynaptic neuron
peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite receptor
the simplest of nerve pathways; nerve impulsed pass through a synapse in the spinal cord which allows reaction before the impulse has traveled to the brain and back reflex arc
a nerve impulse "jumps" from one node of ranvier to the next saltatory conduction
large nucleated cell that forms myelin schwann cell
neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all parts of the body sensory neuron
a neurotransmitter; one of the catecholamines serotonin
part of the autonomic nervous system; ganglia are connected to the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; the body's emergency response system sympathetic nervous system
junction between adjacent neurons synapse
the space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron synaptic cleft
a tiny bulge at the end of a terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon that contains vesicles with neurotransmitters synaptic knob
a single nerve pathway made up of several bundles of axons and extending throught the central nervous system tract
the most numerous type of synapse chemical synapse
synapses that occur primarily between smooth muscle cells where quick, uniform enervation is essential; also located in cardiac muscle electrical synapse
the exterior surface of the cerebrum cerebral cortex
the place where most high-level brain functions take place cerebrum
this lobe of the cerebrum plays are parte in impulse control, judgment, language, working memory, motor function, sexual behavior, socialization, spontaneity, and planning cooridinatin, controlling, and executing behavior frontal lobe
this lobe of the cerebram plays and important part in integrating sensory information, knowledge and relationships of numbers, manipulation of objects, and spatial processing. parietal lobe
this lobe contains the centers for hearing, taste, smell, and interprets sounds as words temporal lobe
this lobe processis fisual information occipital lobe
located at the lower back of the brain beneat the occipital lobes; coordinates body movements cerebellum
two rounded masses of gray tissue in the middle of the brain between the cerebral hemispheres; the relay station for incoming sensory signals and outgoing motor signals thalamus
beneath the thalamus; controls eating drinking, temperature regulation, sleep, emotional behavior, and sexual activity hypothalamus
the most primitive part of the brain controlling basic functions of life such as breathing and blood pressure brain stem
three parts of the brain stem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
the top structure of the brain stem, contains the relay and reflex centers for visual and auditory functions; also for pain, temperature, and touch midbrain
large bundles of nerve fibers connecting the two halves of the cerebellum, man relay station between cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata pons
the stalk-like lowermost portion of the brain stem, transitions into the spinal cord at the foramen magnum medulla oblongata
the two main pathways of the perhipheral nervous system sensory (afferent), motor (efferent)
the two divisions of the PNS somatic, autonomic
this division of the PNS oversees conscious activity somatic
this division of the PNS oversees unconcious activity autonomic
two subsystems of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic, parasympathetic
the sympathatic and parasympathetic systems are ________ to each other antagonistic
complete or partial loss of sense of smell anosmia
absence of an eye anopia
thin, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris aqueous humor
inflammation of the eyelid margins blepharitis
middle, vascular layer of the eye choroid
coiled tube in the inner ear cochlea
inflammation of the conjunctiva conjunctivitis
the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber cornea
a nerve that arises from the underside of the brain or the brainstem cranial nerve
double vision diplopia
the period after stimulation of a nerve during which it cannot be stimulated again refractory period
a nerve impulse travels the full length of an unmyelinated nerve fiber, this type of conduction is continuous conduction
nerve agents bind with __________, preventing it from performing its function of deactivating _____________ acetlycholinasterase, acetycholine
blindness in one half of the visual field hemianopia
colored muscular part of the eye iris
complex system of connecting chambers and tubes of the inner ear labyrinth
tear gland lacrimal cland
tough outer protective layer of the eye sclera
consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles somatic nervous system
senses that stem from receptors associated with specialized sensory organs special senses
another name for the "eardrum" tympanic membrane
clear jellylike substance within the eye vitreous humor
this cranial nerver carries sense of smell I (olfactory)
this cranial nerve carries visual signals from the eye to the brain II (optic)
this cranial nerve raises the eyelid, moves the eye, and constricts the pupil III (oculomotor)
this cranial nerve moves the eye downward and away from the midline IV (trochlear)
this cranial nerve carries sensation from parts of the face and eye and moves muscles of mastication V (trigeminal)
this cranial nerve moves the eye away from the midline VI (abducens)
how many symmetrically arranged pairs of spinal nerves? 31
the area between the vertebrae and the dura mater epidural space
this cranial nervestimulates muscles of facial expression and carries taste sensation from the tongue VII (facial)
this cranial nerve carries sensory information for hearing and equilibrium VIII (vestibulocochlear)
this cranial nerve is responsible for the gag reflex and action of swallowing IX (glossopharyngeal)
this cranial nerve is responsible for swallowing and speech, and for control of smooth muscles and glands in the thorax and abdomen X (vagus)
this cranial nerve is responsible for the motion of shrugging XI (spinal accessory nerve)
this cranial nerve controls muscles that move the tongue XII(hypoglossal)
organs of taste taste buds
organs of smell olfactory organs
four primary taste sensations sweet, sour, salty, bitter
the predominant taste sensed by the tip of the tongue sweet
the predominant taste sensed by the margins of the tongue sour
the predominant taste sensed by the back of the tongue bitter
these taste receptors are widely distributed over the tongue salty
yellow brown masses of epithelium located in the upper parts of the nasal cavity olfactory organs
the area for the interpretation of smell olfactory cortex
the area for the interpretation of taste, and what lobe it is located in gustatory cortex, parietal lobe
this part of the ear collects sound waves created by vibrating objects external ear
outer funnel like structure of the ear that gathers the sound waved and directs the waves throught the external auditory canal to the ear drum auricle (pinna)
S shaped tube that leads inward to the temporal bone external auditory meatus
where the middle ear begins and and ends tympanic membrane, oval window
the organ of hearing and where it is located organ of corti, cochlea
this is responsible for static equilibrium vestibule
this is responsible for dynamic equilibrium semicircular canals
the watery, replacable fluid of the eye aqueous humor
the jelly-like, irreplacable fluid of the eye vitreus humor
the "window" of the eye cornea
the white portion of the eye sclera
the colored portion of the eye iris
the opening of the iris through which light passes pupil
flexible, transparent structure that lies directly behind the iris lens
very sensitive to light, allow you to see in dim light, but only general outlines and no color rods
not as sensitive to light, detect color and provide sharpness and clearness to images cones
this vitamin plays and important part in mantaining night vision vitamin A
hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex corticoids
dwarfism caused by hypo-secretion of the thyroid gland cretinism
a condiation caused by the hyper-secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex cushing's syndrome
a condition resulting from hypo-secretion of ADH where large volumes of hurine are formed diabetes insipidus
the pancreatic islet cells secrete too little insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia diabetes mellitus
secretes into a duct exocrine
secretes into blood or tissue; ductless endocrine
an abnormal protrusion of the eyes exophthalmos
a condition produced by hyper-secretion of GH during the early years of life gigantism
hormones that influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism secreted by the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids
the formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds glucogenesis
an enlargement of the thyroid gland goiter
excess growth of hair hirsutism
substances secreted by and endocrine gland and transported in the blood hormones
hormones that influence mineral salt metabolism; secreted by the adrenal cortex mineralocorticoids
condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults myxedema
set of glands located on the surface of the thyroid gland parathyroid
a group of naturally-occuring fatty acids that affect many bodily functions prostaglandins
organs or cells acted upon by a particular hormone target cells
the masculinization of a female virilism
chemical released from an endocrine gland that affects the function of a target cell hormone
the main regulators of homeostasis in the body hormones
the two classes of hormones nonsteroid, steroid
these hormones have receptor sites on the cell membrane and utilize the second messenger system nonsteroid
these hormones have cell receptor sites on the nucleus of the target cell steroid
most hormones are regulated by __________ feedback negative
biochemical substances that act locally on cells withing a tissue prostaglandins
the secretions of the pituitary gland are regulated by the _________ hypothalamus
two hormones produced by the posterior pituitary oxytocin, antidiuretic
six hormones produced by the anterior pituitary TSH, ACTH, PRL, growth hormone, LH, FSH
Four P's of diabetes Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Poor weight
the secretions of the anterior pituitary are controlled by __________ from the hypothalamus hormones
the secretions of the posterior pituitary are controlled by ___________ from the hypothalamus nerve responses
this hormone of the anterior pituitary controls the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland, and is stimulated by TRH from the hypothalamus TSH
this secretion of the anterior pituitary controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex, and is stimulated by CRH from the hypothalamus ACTH
these two secretions of the anterior pituitary are gonadotropins affecting the male and female gonads FSH and LH
this secretion of the anterior pituitary stimulates body cells to grow and replicate GH
this secretion of the anterior pituitary promotes the production of milk following childbirth PRL
this secretion of the posterior pituitary causes the kidneys to conserve water, and is regulated by the amount of water in the fluids as detected by the hypothalamus ADH
this secretion of the posterior pituitary stimulates the contraction of the uterus, and stimulates the release of milk into the breast ducts Oxytocin
ADH and Oxytocin are made in this organ of the endocrine system hypothalamus
the three secretions of the thyroid gland T3, T4, Calcitonin
this secretion of the thyroid decreases blood calcium levels Calcitonin
these secretions of the thyroid gland work together to regulate energy metabolism T3, T4
these glands are found behind the thyroid parathyroid
_________ is the antagonist of calcitonin, and is secreted by the _________ gland PTH, parathyroid
the two parts of the adrenal glands cortex, medulla
this glucocorticoid influences metabolism of glucose, protein, and fat, and is secreted as a response to stress cortisol
this mineralcorticoid causes the kidneys to conserve Na+, and therefore water aldosterone
these two secretions of the adrenal medulla are released as part of the "fight or flight" response epinephrine, norepinephrine
the endocrine portions of the pancreas islets of langerhans
these cells of the islets of langerhans secrete glucagon alpha cells
these cells of the islets of langerhans secrete insulin beta cells
this secretion of the pancreas causes blood sugar to rise glugagon
this secretion of the pancreas causes blood sugar to lower insulin
the two hormones secreted by the ovaries estrogen, progesterone
the hormone secreted by the testes testosterone
this temporary gland produces estrogen, progesterone, and gonadotropin during pregnancy placenta
this secretion of the thymus plays an important role in the maturation of T lymphocytes thymosin
this gland is sometime referred to as the "third eye" because it responds to changing light levels to regulate sleep patterns pineal
this secretion of the pineal gland helps to regulate the body's clock melatonin
the four mechanisms of endocrine disorders tumors, glandular hypo/hyper secretion, damaged target cell receptors, target cell insensitivity
another name for hyperthyroidism graves's disease
enlarged thyroid gland goiter
stunted growth as a result of hypoactive thyroid cretinism
large size due to hypersecretion of GH during early years gigantism
small size due to hyposecretion of GH during early years dwarfism
enlarged hands, feet, jaws, and cheeks as a result of hypersecretion of GH after normal growth years acromegaly
altered carbohydrate and protein metabolism, along with high levels of Na+ as a result of hypersecretion of adrenal cortical hormones cushing's syndrome
decreased blood Na+, high K+, dehydration, low glucose, low BP, and increased skin pigmentation as a result of hyposecretion of adrenal corical hormones addison's disease
insulin dependent diabetes is also called type 1
non-insulin dependent diabetes is also called type 2
this type of diabetes mellitus is caused by destruction of beta cells, usually as a result of and autoimmune response type 1
this type of diabetes mellitus is caused by either decreased insulin production, or by a failure of body cells to recognize the insulin produced type 2
this disease is caused by a halt in production of ADH, and can cause a person to urinate up to 25 liters per day diabetes insipidus
Created by: ewoff85