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CHAPTER 11

BIOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS CONVERT SIGNALS ON A CELLS SURFACE INTO CELLULAR RESPONSE.
ENDOCYTOSIS (INTO CELL/ENTER CELL) THE CELL TAKES IN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES AND PARTICULATE MATTER BY FORMING NEW VESICULES FROM THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
EXOCYTOSIS THE CELLULAR SECRETION OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES BY THE FUSION OF VESICULES CONTAINING THEM WITH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE.
HORMONES BOTH ANIMALS AND PLANTS USE THESE CHEMICALS CALLED HORMONES FOR LONG DISTANCE SIGNALING STEROIDS A TYPE OF LIPID. THEY VARY WIDELY IN MOLECULAR SIZE AND TYPE.
HORMONE SIGNALING a.k.a ENDOCRINE SIGNALING; IN ANIMALS SPECIAL CELLS RELEASE HORMONE MOLECULES THAT TRAVEL VIA THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM TO TARGET CELLS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY.
PLANT HORMONES a.k.a. PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS; SOMETIMES TRAVEL IN VESSELS BUT MORE OFTEN REACH THEIR TARGETS BY MOVING THROUGH CELLS OR DIFFUSING THROUGH THE AIR AS A GAS. ex. ETHYLENE (PROMOTES RIPENING & HELPS REGULATE GROWTH)
HORMONE INSULIN REGULATES SUGAR LEVELS IN THE BLOOD IS A PROTEIN WITH THOUSANDS OF ATOMS.
LONG DISTANCE SIGNALING TRANSMISSION OF A SIGNAL THROUGH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.ENABLES A NERVE SIGNAL TO TRAVEL ALONG A SERIES OF NERVE CELLS.
DESCRIPTION OF A LONG DISTANCE SIGNAL AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL THAT TRAVELS THE LENGTH OF A NERVE CELL & IS THEN CONVERTED BACK TO A CHEMICAL SIGNAL WHEN A SIGNALING MOLECULE IS RELEASED & CROSSES THE SYNAPSE TO ANOTHER NERVE CELL. HERE IT IS CONVERTED BACK TO AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.
NERVE SIGNAL USED IN LONG DISTANCE SIGNALING. SOME NERVE CELLS ARE QUITE LONG THE NERVE SIGNAL CAN QUICKLY TRAVEL GREAT DISTANCES ex. FROM YOUR BRAIN TO YOUR BIG TOE.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A CELL ENCOUNTERS A SIGNALING MOLECULE THE MOLECULE MUST BE RECOGNIZED BY A SPECIFIC RECEPTER MOLECULE, AND THE INFORMATION IT CARRIES,THE SIGNAL,MUST BE CHANGED INTO ANOTHER FORM TRANSDUCED INSIDE THE CELL BEFORE THE CELL CAN BE FORMED.
THE THREE STAGES OF CELL SIGNALING RECEPTION, TRANSDUCTION AND RESPONSE
RECEPTION STAGE ONE OF CELL SIGNALING; TARGET CELLS RECEPTION OF A SIGNALING MOLECULES. COMING FROM OUTSIDE THE CELL.
PROCESS OF RECEPTION (1ST PROCESS OF CELL SIGNALING) A CHEMICAL SIGNAL IS "DETECTED" WHEN THE SIGNALING MOLECULE BINDS TO A RECEPTOR PROTEIN LOCATED AT THE CELLS SURFACE OR INSIDE THE CELL.
TRANSDUCTION SECOND STAGE OF CELL SIGNALING; THE BINDING OF THE SIGNALING MOLECULE CHANGES THE RECEPTOR PROTEIN IN SOME WAY; INITIATING THE PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION.
PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION (2ND PROCESS OF CELL SIGNALING) THE TRANSDUCTION STAGE CONVERTS THE SIGNAL TO A FORM THAT CAN BRING ABOUT A SPECIFIC CELLULAR RESPONSE.SOMETIMES OCCURS IN A SINGLE STEP BUT MOSTLY REQUIRES A SEQUENCE OF CHANGES IN A SERIES OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES.
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY BY TRANSDUCTION REQUIRES A SEQUENCE OF CHANGES IN A SERIES OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES. THE MOLECULES IN THE PATHWAY ARE OFTEN CALLED RELAY MOLECULES.
RESPONSE STAGE 3 OF CELL SIGNALING;THE TRANSDUCED SIGNAL FINALLY TRIGGERS A SPECIFIC CELLULAR RESPONSE.THE RESPONSE MAY BE ALMOST ANY CELLULAR ACTIVITY SUCH AS CATALYST FROM AN ENZYME REARRANGEMENT OF THE CYTOSKELETON OR ACTIVATION OF SPECIFIC GENES IN NUCLEUS.
PROCESS OF RESPONSE (3RD PROCESS OF CELL SIGNALING) THIS PROCESS HELPS ENSURE THAT CERTAIN CRUCIAL ACTIVITIES OCCUR IN THE RIGHT CELLS,IN THE RIGHT TIME, AND IN PROPER COORDINATION W/THE OTHER CELLS OF THE ORGANISM
LOCAL REGULATORS MESSENGER MOLECULES ARE SECRETED BY THE SIGNALING CELL.SOME TRAVEL ONLY SHORT DISTANCES.SUCH REGULATORS INFLUENCE CELLS IN VICINITY.1 CLASS OF LOCAL REGULATORS IN ANIMALS GROWTH FACTORS CONSISTS COMPOUNDS THAT STIMULATE NEARBY TARGET CELLS TO GROW/DIVIDE
Created by: TRESCEE