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Micro final

Antony van leeuwenhoek Made the first microscope.
Spontaneous Generation Organisms can arise from none-living matter.
Francesco Redi Helped disprove spontaneous generation and meat in the jar experiment.
Louis Pasteur Father of modern microbiology, the swan-necked flask experiment.
John Tyndall Contributed to the discovery of endospores.
Prokaryotes Singled celled organism that does not contain a membrane bound nucleus, no true nucleus.
Eukaryotes Complex cell with a membrane bound nucleus. Fungi,protozoa.
Bacteria Prokaryote, no organelles and replicate by binary fission, motile.
Archaea Prokaryote, found in extreme enviroments.
Eukarya Eukaryote, have organelles,single or multicellular.
Fungi Very diverse, eukarya, single cell is yeast multicellular is mold.
Protozoa Single celled, usually motile, complex. No cell wall, water.
Viruses At their simplest, nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.Non living.
Prions Infectious protein.Non-living. Misfolded proteins.
Covalent Bond Very strong and difficult to break. Formed when two atoms share electrons.
Ionic Bond Occurs when one atom gives electrons to another atom.
Hydrogen Bond The weakest, formed from + H towards - atoms. readily dissociates.
Proteins Made up of amino acids, can be structural and act as enzymes.
Amino Acids Held together by covalent bonds called peptide bonds.
Carbohydrates Common energy Source, form bacterial walls and nucleic acids.
Light Microscopes Light passes through the specimen, then through magnifying lenses.
Condenser Focuses the light.
Iris diaphragm Controls the amount of light.
Magnification Ocular and objective lenses magnify the image.
Resolution The ability to resolve 2 objects that are close together.
Refraction Light passes from glass to air it bends.
Contrast The number of visible shades in a specimen
Phase-Contrast Microscope Amplifies differences in the refraction index to create contrast.
Interference Microscope 2 light beams pass through the specimen then recombine.
Dark-Field Microscope Light is directed toward the specimen at an angle. field is dark.
Fluorescence Microscope UV light causes fluorescent molecules to emit light.
Electron transmission microscope Shoots a beam of electrons at the specimen allowing to see inside.
Electron scanning microscope Is used to see surface details.
Simple Staining Using a single stain, everything will be the same color.
Differential Staining Multiple stains, able to see the differences between objects.
Gram Stain step 1 Primary stain, purple.
Gram stain step 2 Iodine, hold the primary dye to cells, purple.
Gram stain step 3 Alcohol. Gram + are purple, Gram - become colorless.
Gram stain step 4 Adds color, Gram + are purple, Gram - are appear red.
Acid fast stain Uses heat, used on Mycobacterium b/c waxy lipid coats hinders traditional staining.
Rod shaped Bacillis
Spherical shaped coccus
Cytoplasmic membrane Composed of lipids with protein, semi permeable membrane defines boundary of cell.
Osmosis Water flow across membrane, towards higher concentration.
Active transport A transport protein moves against concentration gradient, energy used.
Flegella Long protein appendage acts like an outboard motor.
Pilli Protein appendage small used for attachment.
Chromosomes Contains genetic information of the cell.
Plasmids Small, Extra-chromosomal DNA, aid in survival.
Ribosomes Proteins that carry out translation
Endospores Very resistant form of life.
Hyphae Filaments of lots of cells. Septate or nonseptate.
Fungi Characteristics Are nonphotosynthic, exist as yeasts or molds. Cell walls have chitin cell membrane have sterols.
Dimorphic fungi Many pathogenic fungi are, can be yeast or mold depending on temp.
Zygomycetes Nonseptate, Asexual=Sporangiospores Sexual=Zgospores
Ascomycetes Septate, Asexula=condidia and budding Sexual=Acospores
Conidia Asexual spores borne on hyphae
Deuteromycetes Septate, Asexual=Budding Sexual=Absent or unknown
Basidiomycetes Septate, Asexual=Conidia Sexual=Basidiospores
Superficial infection On hair.
Cutaneous infection Infection of the skin.
Subcutaneous infection Deeper than skin infection.
Systemic infection Desease, lungs/blood
Opportunistic infection People with a deficiency are more likely.
Susceptible to fungal infections Anything that decreases immune function will increase risk of infection.
Protozoa Trophozoite Vegetative or feeding form.
Protozoa Cyst Resting form.
Sarcodinia Amebas, move by pseudopodia.
Mastigophora Flagellates, move by flagella.
Ciliophora Ciliates, move by cilia coating cell.
Apicomplexa Sporozoa, are inteacellular parasites.
Mechanical Vectors Insect pick up a pathogen and contaminates food that is eaten by a human.
Biological Vectors The vector is a host for the organism before transfer to humans via a bite, ingested.
Helminthes Multicellular and complex organisms.
Definitive host Harbors adult worms, is the host which sexual reproduction takes place; eggs.
Intermediate host Harbors larval forms; asexual reproduction may take place.
Nematodes Have long, round, narrow bodies. egg or lavae can be infectious unit, round worms.
Cestodes Tapeworms, Cysticercosis=ingestion of eggs, no intermediate.
Trematodes Flukes, Leaf-shaped, Larvae burrow into snails. intermediate host.
Latent Cycles Viral nucleic acid intergrates into the host cell genome and lays dormant. Host cell=lysogenized. virus=prophage.
Eclipse period Time from virus existance to first assembly of virrion.
Latent period Time virron is detected outside the cell.
Chronic infection signs and symptoms may go away but the virus can still be detected.
Viruses and cancer Some viruses can transform cells making them cancerous.
Normal cells Contact inhibition, anchorage dependence, limited lifespan.
Cancer cells No contact, no anchorage dependence, grow like bacteria, immortal.
Exoenzymes Large molecule must be broken down outside of the cell and then imported into the cell for metabolism.
Simple diffusion Flows down a concentration gradient, water.
Facilitated Diffusion Flows down a concentration, but it is by a transport protein such as permease.
Active Transport Flows against a concentration gradient, mediated by a transport protein, requires energy.
Group translocation Mediated by a transport protein, very important to bacteria.
Catabolism Reactions that break down molecules into smaller building blocks.
Anabolism Reactions that use energy to make larger molecules out of smaller ones.
Exergonic reactions Release energy.
Endergonic reastions Use energy.
Features of enzymes Protein catalyst, very specific, lowers the activation energy.
Substrate level phosphorylation Makes ATP, uses chemical energy, an organic compound is the final electron acceptor.
Oxidative phosphorylation Makes ATP, uses energy from proton motive force. electron transport chain, respiration.
Photophosphorylation Makes ATP, uses energy from light, uncommon in bacteria.
Oxidation-Reduction reaction LEO the lion says GER.
Respiration Uses the electron transport chain, uses reducing power to generate ATP.
Aerobic Respiration Makes the most ATP, oxygen is the final electron acceptor, makes oxygen radicals.
Anaerobic Respiration Makes a little less ATP, An inorganic molecule other than oxygen is the final electron acceptor, Sulfur
ATP Synthase Permits protons to flow back into the cell, harvesting the energy to synthesize ATP.
Fermentation The worst at making ATP.
Generation Time The time it takes for the population to double.
All macromolecules can be Broken down for energy. True.
Bacteria divide by binary fission True.
Pure Culture A population of cells derived from a single cell, making them identical.
Culture media Can be broth, liquid, or solid, agar, form.
Broth Liquid, used for large cultures.
Agar Solid, used to isolate colonies.
Streak-plate method Simplest and most commonly used bacterial isolation technique.
Lag phase first phase, cells are preparing for growth but not dividing yet
Log phase second phase, exponential growth, active division.
Stationary phase Third phase,Cells have nearly used up all nutrients, cell death=cell division.
Death phase last phase, no more division. cells are dying exponentially.
Environmental factors Influence growth, Temp oxygen PH water.
Obligate aerobe Requires oxygen
Obligate anaerobe Cannot, under any circumstances grow in the presence of oxygen.
Facultative anaerobe Can grow without oxygen, but grows better with it.
Microaerophile Needs a little oxygen.
Aerotolerant anaerobes Always grows anaerobically, regardless of the presence of oxygen.
Capnophiles Need increased carbon dioxide.
Catalase and superoxide dismutase Detoxify oxygen at the end of arobic respiration.
Neutrophiles Prefer a PH range around 7
Acidophiles Like acidic ph, below 5.5 best.
Alkylophiles Like basic ph, above 8.5 best.
Water Halophines grow in high salt concentration.
Nutritional factors Influence growth.
Required elements CHNOPS
Heterotroph Use organic carbon as a nutrient source.
Autotroph Inorganic carbon, use carbon dioxide.
Phototrophs Derive energy from sunlight.
Chemolitho Inorganic compounds.
Chemoorgano organic compounds.
Chemically defined media You know exactly what is in it, specified to individual species.
Complex media You do not know exactly what is in it. Very nutrient rich.
Selective media Allows one type of bacteria to grow while inhibiting the growth of another. selects growth.
Differential media Does not inhibit growth, gives a visual cue to see the difference between species.
DNA The master blue print of the cell.
Genome Complete set of genetic information of the cell.
Individual deoxyribonucleotides 5 Carbon sugar, Nitrogenous base A,T,G, or c, 3 OH, 5 PO4,
Adenine and Guanine Purine
Thymine and Cytosine Pyrimidine
DNA replication Makes an exact copy of the genome.
Leading Strand Replicated continuously, moves toward the replication fork.
Lagging Strand Replicated discontinuously, moves away from the replication fork.
Transcription In nucleus, carried out by RNA polymerase.
Promoter Tells the sigma factor of RNA polymerase where to start.
Terminator Tells the sigma factor of RNA polymerase where to stop.
Translation In cytoplasm, carried out by ribosomes, rRNA, tRNA.
Ribosomes Proteins, 2 subunits 30'S 50'S
rRNA A type of RNA that complexes with the ribosome proteins.
tRNA Acts as a bridge between mRNA and growing protein chain. carries amino acid for each codon.
Codons Groups of 3 nucleotides.
AUG The Start codon for Every protein.
Constitutive enzyme class Always synthesized.
Inducible enzyme class Not regularly produced, usually off but can be turned on in certain conditions.
Repressible enzyme class Usually on but can be turned off.
Repressor Blocks transcription, binds to a sequence of DNA called a operator-downstream of the promoter.
Activators Turn on transcription, activator binding site-upstream of the promotor.
Inducers Can bind to either repressors or activators, inhibiting or promoting their ability to bind to DNA.
Operons Sets of genes that include an operator, promotor, and structual genes. Metabolism
Proofreading A function of DNA polymerase. it will fix its own mistakes.
Mismatch repair A different set of enzymes recognizes the mistake, cuts out the mistake and repairs.
Transformation The transfer of naked DNA-donor dies
Transduction The transfer of DNA by a virus, donor dies
Conjuction The transfer of DNA using a pilus, donor survives.
Antiseptic A disinfectant that is nontoxic enough to be used on skin.
Bactericidal Kill bacteria
Bacteriostatic Prevents the growth of, but does not kill.
Disinfectant A chemical used to destroy many microorganisms and viruses.
Pasteurization A brief heat treatment used to reduce the number of spoilage organisms.
Sterilant A chemical used to destroy all microorganisms and viruses in a product rendering it sterile.
Sterile Completely free of all microorganisms and viruses, an absolute term.
Sterilization The process of destroying all microorganisms and viruses through physical or chemical means.
Physical Agents Heat, cold, radiation, filtration, high pressure.
Moist heat Includes pressurized steam, boiling and pasteurization.
Pressurized steam Sterilant.
Pasteurization Disinfectant.
Boiling Disinfectant.
Dry heat Less efficient way to sterilize. Charring everything.
Cold More for preservation, freezing kills tapeworm cysts.
Ionizing radiation X rays and gamma rays, lots of power, sterilant.
Non-ionizing radiation Ultraviolet, less power, not able to penetrate.
Filtration Good for sterilizing solutions that need to retain biological activity.
High Pressure Up to 130,000 psi.
Chemical Agents Used to treat inanimate objects.
Alkylating Agents Bactericidal, used for sterilization.
Oxidizing Agents Irreversible, bactericidal, common disinfectants.
Heavy Metals Reversible, bacteriostatic, silver nitrate used on newborns.
Biguanides Bacteriostatic, used extensively as an antiseptic.
Phenols First antiseptic, penetrates and disrupts membranes. Disinfectants.
Cationic detergents Quats, skin antiseptic and general disinfectants,
Anionic detergents Soaps, Hydrophobic end enters the membrane and disrupts it causing lysis.
Antibiotics Derived from naturally from molds or bacteria.
Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin.
Inhibit Bacteriostatic.
Kill Bactericidal.
Narrow spectrum Work on a narrow range of organisms, gram + or gram - only.
Broad Spectrum Work on a broad range of organisms,Gram + and Gram -
Ideal Antibiotic Broad spectrum, prevent resistance, no bad effects, not destroy normal flora.
Adverse effects of antibiotics Allergic reactions, toxic effects, suppression of normal flora.
Bacitracin Cell wall inhibitor, Bactericidal.
Vancomysin Stops cross-linking,Bactericidal.
Antimycobacterial drugs Thick lipid-rich waxy outer layer, isoniazid and ethambutol.
Aminoglycosides Targets 30s subunit, translation inhibitor, Bactericidal.
Tetracyclines Targets 30s subunit, translation inhibitor, bacteriostatic.
Mls Antibiotics Targets 50s subunit, translation inhibitor, bacteriostatic. macrolides lincosamides, streptogramins.
Chloramphenicol Target 50s subunit, translation inhibitor, bacteriostatic
Oxazolidinones Target 50s subunit, translation inhibitor, Bacteriostatic
Rifamycin Target RNA polymerase, Transcription inhibitor, Bactericidal.
Quinolones DNA antibiotic, target enzyme DNA gyrase, bactericidal.
Antimetabolites Sulfonamides and trimethoprim, both inhibit folic acid synthesis, Bacteriostatic.
Membrane Antibiotics Cyclic polypeptide polymixin, detergent.
Origin of Antibiotic resistance Natural mutation(vertical) is minor. Transfer is horizontal is major.
Polyenenes Binds to ergosterol.
Azoles Prevents the production of ergosterol.
Allyamines Prevent the production of ergosterol by inhibiting squalene epoxidase.
Echinocandins Bind to B-glucans to destabilize the wall.
Flucytosine Replaces vracil in RNA creating mispairing and mutations.
Griseofulvin Interacts with microtublules inhibiting mitosis.
Antiparasitic drugs Interfere of protozoan parasites or neuromuscular function of worms.
Antibiotics Have no effect on viral infections.
Nucleoside analogues Viral nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor.
Antigenic shift Radical change, genomic reassortment.
Antigenic Drift point mutation, small changes overtime.
Created by: Shelby.Wessling