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my ch 9

Growth and Development

QuestionAnswer
Many improvements have contributed to longer life and better health. better sanitation,medication,immunizations,exercise,&improved nutrition
Factors of longevity health, happiness, avoidance of tabacco, job satisfaction
Life expectancy how many years a person will live
Based similar characteristics life expectancy is averaged
What was life expectancy in the early 20th century? 47.3 years
What is life expectancy today? 77 years
Females out live males by 6 years
African Am females outlive white males
Household income greater than 25,000 live 3-7 years longer depending on sex and race
Those with incomes less than 10,000 live less than people with higher incomes
Infant mortality rate # of deaths before 1 year of age.
Infancy birth to 1 yr
toddler 1-3 years
Preschool 3-5 years
School age 6-12 years
Adolescence 13-19 years
Early Adulthood 20-40 years
Middle Adulthood 40-65 years
Late Adulthood 65 years and over
tabacco use causes HTN,hyperlipidemia, DM 2, heart disease, stroke, low self esteem, gallbladder, arthritus, cancer, sleep problems, lung disease, prematurity, spontateous abortion, SIDS, Injuries by fire
substance abuse spouse/child abuse, STDs,
Mental Illness depression(suiside), inability to maintain relationships w/partner, parent, coworker
Injury and violence money spent on medical care, rehab, loss of productivity, wages
poor environmental quality premature births, resp. illness, cancer
immunization disease control, prevention of illness and death
Growth increase in size of the whole or in parts
Development refers to function - gradual process of change from simple to complex
Growth occurs Cephalocaudal
Growth and development cephalocaudal; infant's head is lger than body which will catch up in growth
Proximodistal growth that originates in the center - moves to the outside
Infant gains control of the shoulders before control of the hands and fingers proximodistal
growth that occurs from head to toe cephalocaudal
not all organs grow at the same rate and at the same time EX. ovaries and testees do not grow until puberty
Karyotype same genetic info such as in identical twins
Blueprint for traits Zygote
Zygote becomes blastocyst developing ovum form the time it is fertilizeed until it is implanted in the uterus
How many chromosomes does the zygote cntain? 23 pairs or 46; one from each parent
Sex chromosomes determine whether it is a girl or a boy
A Y chromosomes means it's a boy
birth admiralities of chromosomes Tay-Sachs, sickle-cell, phenylketonuria, spina bifada
Teratogen environmental agent interferring with normal growth and develpment of a fetus
EX of teratogens alcohol, drugs, cigerette smoke
Smoking during pregnancy 5 - 25% of unfavorable outcomes are due to smoking. causes low birth weight
Family Basic unit of society
Families consist of 2 or more untited by marriage, blood, adoption, emotional bonds, social roles
Basic family func in the family protection, nurtuance, education, sustenance, socialization
What does the family attempt to do? meet needs for growth and development/suppport personal fulfillment/building self esteem
What is the family to children? 1st socializing agent for teaching society's expectations and limitations
What is the family responsible for? Formal educaiton, morals, values and ideals
Are these roles and functions of families stable? No, and may not be constant
Types of families? Nuclear,extended,single-parent,blended, cohabitating, homo, apoptive, foster
What is a nuclear family? traditional - mother, father, children
single faimily more than 40% is due to divorce
blended/ reconstituted family step family
Blended families potentially bring stress - adults and children don't trust love
Childless and infertile couples are often lonely and lack fulfillment
Family patterns autocratic, patriarchal, matriarchal, democratic
What family pattern is least open to outside influence? autocratic
Autocratic patterns unequal, one controling with strict rules and high expectations. Abuse highly likely
Patriarchal pattern Male dominated. Func. in work role, decision maker for finance and most other dicisions
Matriarchal also called matrifocal-Female, makes decisions. Common for older adult female in the family to watch children for mother to work
What kind of family pattern respects the children recognizes them as equals? Democratic- and adults share func. of decision making, favors negotiation, compromise, growth
When is oppistion or support evident from family or friends? Engagement stage when a couple are CONSIDERING marriage
when is the Establishment stage? extends from the wedding upto the birth of the first child
What is important during the establishment stage? learning from the single to married-interdependent
Success at marriage satifies Ericson's task of intimacy
what stage fills need of love and belonging? marriage - establishment
Expectant stage conception - pregnancy
Surrogacy when a women bears a child for a fee and gives up parental rights
Parenthood stage begins at birth/adoption-brings about anxiety
Disengagement stage grown child leaves the house for good. Empty nest
Senescence Stage last stage of life.have to cope with alot of chg.
Stressors of the family unit chronic illness, abuse, divorce
what affects the families ability to cope with a chronic illness? financial, family stability, adequacy of the support system
Alternative family patterns are common
White infant mortality twice as low as Af Am infant.
Aside from the financial gain many feel that working mothers create a wider range of valid role models for young children
Risk factors for abuse fin. strain,social isolation, low self-esteem, previous history
Common characteristics of abusers abused themselves, loners, harsh, strict, punitive, unreasonable, immature, lack self control, lack self esteem
abuse is pervasive - spreads throughout
How do younger children of divorce feel? abandoned - no longer loved by both parents
Erik Erikson psychosocial development-Am psychoanalyst
Jean Paiget Swiss-cognitive development
Infancy - Birth to 1 yr Basic trust vs mistrust
Toddler - 1 to 3 yr Autonomy vs shame and doubt
Preschool - 4 to 6 Initiative vs guilt
School Age - 7 to 11 yr Industry vs inferiority
Adolescence 12 to 19 Indentity vs role confusion
Young Adult 20 to 44 Intimacy vs isolation
Middle Adult 45 to 65 Generativity vs Stagnation
Late Adult 65+ Ego integrity vs despair
Learn to trust or not that will be provided basic needs, nourishment, sucking, warmth, love Infancy - basic trust vs mistrust
self sufficient in many activities-toileting,feeding,walking,talking,or doubt their abilities Toddler - Autonomy vs shame/doubt
want to do adultlike activities, beyond thier limits/feel guilty about it Preschool - Initiative vs guilt
Children learn to be competent/productive, or feel inferior, & unable to do task well Schoolage - Industry vs inferiority
try to figure out "who am I?" est. sexual, ethnic, career identies, or confused about future Adolescence - Identity vs role confusion
Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated Young Adults - Intimacy vs isolation
Productive, meaningful work, raising a family or become stagnant and inactive Middle Adults - Grenerativity vs stagnation
Trying to make sense of their lives, life as meaningful or despairing at goals never reached Late Adult - Ego integrity vs despair
The most physical vibrant 20 - 40
Accidents are the leading cause of death in all age groups
Humans have innate capacity to learn a langauage
Infants will not speak spontaneously
Speech requires Intact physiologic functioning
What are some physical sytems to work for speech resp., speech control in cerebral cortex, articulation and renosance structures mouth and nasal cavities.
speech will require auditory apparatus, intelligence, need to communicate, stimulation
Rate of speech for a child depends on neurologic competence and intelligence
All children go thru same stages in language and speech development
3 months- language stage babbling
1 year language stage recognizes words
Holo phrases acquired gen. by 1 year; one word sentences that have a complete message "UP"
Early speech telegraphic speech; omits pronouns, prepositions, conjuntions
Early childhood is crucial for learning laguage
Evolution of early speech # of words in an average response usually corresponds to the chronologic age of the child
Girls language develops more rapidly than boys
First born develops more rapidly than later born
Multiple births; twins, etc develop slower than single births
By the time the baby has reached 1 yr of age birth weight has tripled
to prevent bottle mouth avoid putting milk in the night bottle
2 months able to hold head up in the prone position
4 months can hold head up 90 degrees in prone position
by the end of the 7th month can sit up unattended
crawling infants abd. touching the floor 7 months
creeping resting the wt on the hands and knees 9 months
Infants needs not met form mistrust and dissatisfaction
Infants learn by senses or sensorimoter
Infants also learn by exploration and interaction
Behavior in the sensorimotor stage completely reflective
schema an innate knowledge structure that allows a child to mentally organize ways to behave in the immediate environment
1-4 months follow objects with eyes and ears
by 4 months better at using both eyes together recog. familiar voices;smiling/responding
4-8 months recognize and immitate; advanced-reach and grab
3 months respond differently to parents than strangers
8 months show signs of stress when seperated from the primary care giver
9 months alarm at the presence of a stranger
synchrony parents/child react together at the same time
infants that develop secure early relationship with parents will have confidence to seek out future relationships
15 - 30 months feel seperation anxiety when seperated from primary
Ultimate health food for babies breast milk
no solide food is needed before 4-6 months
Weighing before and after feeding, will indicate whether feeding is sucessful
S/S of underfeeding lack of satisfaction,cranky,fussy,little wt gain,persistent wrinkling of skin
S/S of overfeeding vomiting after meals, frequent watery stools
Full term babies have enough stored iron until they start eating solid food.
Do not feed for the 1st 6 months citrus foods, eggs or wheat, peanuts or nuts
Potentail choking foods hotdogs, popcorn, grapes, raisins, chic nuggets
infants do not require any water or juice during the 1st 4 months
hot climate, febrile, vomiting, diarrhea must give infants adequate breast/formula
Too much water for an infant water intoxication, failure to thrive, hyponatremia
9 months introduce training cup, explore weaning
finger foods allow exploration
Newborns/Infants sleep 18 hours out of 24
Normal for newborns/infants to be restless and make noises during sleep
Sleeping @ 3 months sleep patterns emerge
1 year sleeping sleep 12 hours @ nite & 1 nap
When should sleeping be reported to healthcare? persistant crying during usual sleep times
SIDS Sudden infants death syndrome or Crib death children die for no apparent reason
When does SIDs peak? 2-3 months
How to reduce SIDS On infants back to sleep, no smoking, no pillows/bedding in bed, rm well ventilated,breastfed if poss.,reg medical ckups
Play style/Infancy Solitary
Toddler 1 to 3 years upright appearance, more proportionate size
exaggerated lumbar lorsosis concave lumbar curve - potbelly appearance
2.5 years all 20 deciduous teeth are present
toddler T:98/99, B/P:80/100over64, HR:90-120bpm, Resp:20-30 pmin
When are children physiologically/psychologically mature enough to potty train? 18 - 24 months
Bowel control occurs before bladder control which takes longer
daytime control for potty training occurs before nighttime control
A child left in diapers too long will have feelings of self doubt
Toddler tries to be independent but often runs to the caregiver for security/approval
Characteristic's of the Erikson's theory of toddler autonomy use of the word "NO" which gives a sense of self control
Toddler's struggle with independency brings about possessiveness
toddler ritulistic/repititive behavior self consoling behaviors
Why would a toddler want to have the same meal at the same time in the same way rituals decrease anxiety;they like knowing what comes next
When healthcare providers follow a toddler's routine? toddler feels safer and more secure in the strange environment
temper tantrums are the result of frustration
Why does the toddler feel frustrated? combo of wanting their way, inability to communicate, lack of impulse control -best ignored unless dangerous
Ericson stressed that young children do not have the wisdom to know what behaviors are acceptalbe or unacceptable;healthy or unhealthy
Discipline neccessary means of teaching limit setting and impulse control
looking for independence, Toddlers seek: attention, approval and love
Period of early childhood preoperational thought stage
A child focusing on the use of langauge as a tool to meet needs child has the emerging ability to think mentally
What holo phrases are often repeated betwn 2-3 yrs "NO!" and "ME!" meaning let me do it myself
Too few solid foods for toddlers leads to iron deficiency
toddlers idiosyncratic eating patterns need less food per unit of boly weight than during infancy
toddler needs 1 serving of meat, 2 veg, at least 2/3 fruit, grains. 24 onzes MILK
Toddler sizes to go by 1 TBSP of solid food for each year
Play improves muscle coodination, balance and muscle strengh, bone growth
Toddler play style Parrellel play-refers to the need that toddlers have to play alongside but not with their peers
Parrellel play is because Toddlers are unable to share and interact
How many deaths are caused by accidents to toddlers? More that 1/2 toddler deaths are due to accidents(usually car)
How much of accidents could be prevented in homes? About 90% of home accidents
Preschool or 3-5 years Most obvious striking changes in size and shape
Most important and least obvious chg in preschoolers maturation of the nervous system/mastery of motor skills
Preschool growth slow and steady-no more potbelly;less top heavy
Preschool wt gain Ht gain average less than 5 pds a yr 2 to 2.5 in. per yr
What is signicant about Preschool ht? By 4, ht doubles birth ht
Preschool gross motor skills developing nicely, while fine moter skills still to be improved
What is scribbling as a preschooler compared to? The babbling of the infant. Both needed for mastery of communication skills
vision in the preschooler farsighted, but improves to 20/30 by 4
Ambyolopia lazy eye, patch good eye to prevent blindness
By age 6 child loses deciduous teeth
Preschooler learns to funtion indepently then uses imagination. Erikson's intiative vs guilt
Preschoolers create fantasies, imaginary friends but have guilt that their wishes can come true
Recognize gender identification; sterotype roles and to show marked interest in sexual difference preschooler
Preschooler uses symbols to represent objects;see things as black and white, good or bad
During the preschool stage time is seen as weekly or seasonal events
Fear is heightened at the preschool age due to vivid imagination. Typical to be afaid of thunder, lightning, dark, pain, abandoment
If the child is not talking by 3, tests for hearing or speech problems tested
High levels of protein, calcium and phospherous needed for preschooler
Wt gain of 20% in preschooler considered obese-precursor for obesity in adult
Sleep required for a preschool 11 to 12 hours at night
Play style for a preschooler becomes cooperative, share, take turns, interact w/playmates
Judgement and awareness is difficult for the preschooler, safety issues needed.
swimming, skating and dancing activities the preschooler is learning
What is important to teach a preschooler their full names,phone numbers and addresses & how to dile 911.
Necessary guidance for the preschooler alternative ways to express feelings and meet their needs
School age growth gradual and subtle-most obvious is long bones and facial bones
What do some school age children complain of because of growth? growing pains-particully at night
School age child 6-12 years grows 2" and gains 4.5-6.5 pds a year for both boys and girls
What is the cause of poor posture in the school ae child? fatique, emotional states, minor skeletal defects
School age children should be reg screened for scoleosis
School age vision and teeth 20/20 and need reg vision testing; permanent teeth develop
School age VS HR 55-90; Resp.22-24; B/P 110/65
What are the challenges facing the school age child? compromise and competing
Erikson says Industry vs inferiority means after the child realizes he must move on from the family, child gets ready to apply himself for tasks and skills
Successful mastery of skills during the school age Strengthens and stabalizes the child's sense of self
As skills are obtained or not obtained School age children view themselves as competent or incompetent/industrious or inferior
Input from the outside . is a key factor in which direction a child's self-concept will take
Between 7-11 children understand logical principles as long as they are applied to concrete cases
School age vocabulary includes slang and swear words because they like their effect
Childhood obesity is largely due to inactivity
childhood diets high in sat fat leads to high levels of blood cholesterol and earlier occurance of heart disease
Inadaquate sleep can cause fatique, irritability, inattention and poor learning
6 yr old 12 yr old 12 hrs of sleep 10 hrs of sleep
nightmares disrupt sleep may be due to violence on television, stress amd overtiredness
School age chilren like to collect objects, even hoard and have privacy and a sense of their own space
Accidents are the leading cause of death in school age children but may be causes by impulsivenss, poor judgment, curiosity, incomplete control over muscle coordination
what has a powerful influence over a school age child television
What are some ways to reduce aggressiveness caused by TV a)limit time watching b)screen content c)watch with children and discuss content
School violence anything that physically or psychologically injures schoolchildren or damages property
Why has violence increased? a)increased availability of weapons b) breakdown in communication
children need resources to help them deal with daily stressors
Encourage parents to ask question's about their child's feelings and their school activities on a daily basis
When should parents seek professional help? when children have difficulty talking to parents or answering questions
What is a key responsibilty of parents to be involved and active participants in their child's daily affairs
Why do children need to be taught constructive ways to hangle their impulses? otherwise they are more likely to resort to unacceptable ways of channeling feelings
Why would children resort to revenge? Makes them feel in control and powerful
What is the first step to preventing tragedy? Recognizing the behavioral tendencies that have the potential to lead to violence or other problem behavior
Knowing how to hanle a gun is... not sufficient to protecting the owner's family and others from injury
Most important for safety guidelines with children and guns teach children what to do if they incounter a gun-DON'T TOUCH;REAL OR PLAY- LEAVE THE AREA-REPORT THE GUN
Adolescence 12 to 19 Begins at puberty and includes physical and personality changes-when one can reproduce
Primary changes for adolescence include organ changes in the ovaries, breasts, uterus, testes and penis
Secondary changes for adolescence include pubic and facial hair, voice change, fat deposits
Adolescence literally means to grow into maturity with changes in psychological, social and maturational
Growth in adolescence regarded as the 2nd major growth period
Females adolescence grow Male adolescence grow 2 to 8" & gain 15 to 55 pds 4 to 12" & gain 15 to 65 pds
S/S that puberty/adolescence began females menarch males sperm production
Erikson says adolescence is identity vs role confusion because of the stormy conflicts to find oneself amidst all the pressures one faces
When is the search for oneself at crisis proportions, according to Erikson? adolescence
The period of adolescence to requires major reorganization of personality, resolution of childhood insecurties and adult responsibility
In adolescence what is the peer group? a milieu to learn and test developing interpersonal skills
Many adolescence use comforming behavior to win proais and acceptance by peers
Moral levels achieve or approach adult level in adolescence
During adolescence females need Males need 2600 calories 3600 calories
Why must the adolescent diet be alot of protein? Because of all the growth 12 to 16%
What nutrients are most likely to be at risk during the rapid growth of adolescence? Calcium, iron and zinc. Boys gain more muscle and girls lose during menstral, so they need about the same
Why is there frequent sports related accidents in puberty? growth spurts cause bones to grow quicker than muscles/tendons which are short/tight-not good protection to the bones
What would help the pubecent reduce physical injury? stretching muscles and warming up prior to excersizing
Accidents are heightened during the adolescent period need for driver's ed, water safety, safe sex, drug ed,
Mood swings are common is adolescence
Mood swing must be distinquished as normal or depressive
A sign of suicide extreme sadness to manic state; indicates one's decision to carry out suicide plan
untreated depression leads to suicide
what is crucial in dealing with depression? early detection which leads to higher success rates
Early adult 20 40 taking on finicial responsibility, making career choices, beginning social relationships, entering marriage, becoming a parent
Early adulthood is said the optimal physical condition and function in life;peak performance
At age 50 physicality declines but a such a gradual response, one hardly notices
Physical appearance is always effected by heredity, environment, gen. well being
Maximum height reached females 16-17 yr males 18-20 yr
Height is stable at ages 30-45, then declines because of spinal disks
The senses are at their sharpest during early adulthood esp around age 20
Physical S/S 20-40 Increase in fatty tissue, decrease in muscle strength and stabalization in reaction time
Vision and hearing start to decline around age 40
In middle adulthood cardiac output, VS, organ reserves decline
What is some cause of heart deteriozation and cancer increased cholesterol deposits and decrease in exercise
What is recommended for reduction of breast, stomach, and intestine cancers diet high in fiber, low-cholesterol, and low fat
By adulthood men and women have reached sexual maturity
Created by: cally_dawber