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68WM6 R&D A&P#4

respiratory and digestive system

Microscopic air sac within the lung, where gas exchange thakes place Alveolus
cessation of breathing after expiration Apnea
the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs 'Bronchial Tree
a primary branch of the trahea that leads to the lung Bronchus
a small branch of a bronchus within the lung Bronchioles
the utilization of O2 by the cells to produce energy(ATP), CO2 and H2O Cellular Respiration
ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx Cricoid Cartilage
difficult or labored breathing Dyspnea
normal (quiet) breathing Eupnea
exchange of gases between alveoli and blood External Respiration
prolonged rapid and deep breathing Hyperventilation
decrease in respiratory rate, very slow and shallow breathing Hypoventilation
deficiency of O2 in arterial blood Hypoxemia
deficiency of O2 reaching the tissues and cells Hypoxia
hypoxia because of diminished blood flow Ischemic hypoxia
hypoxia because of diminished RBCs and Hemoglobin Anemic hypoxia
exchange og gases between the blood and tissues (or body cells). Internal Respiration
process of mechanically moving air into and out of the lungs Pulmonary Ventilation
the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells Respiration
one inspiration followed by one expiration Respiratory Cycle
the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules Surface Tension
increased breathing (frequency) but not necessarily and increase in tidal volume Tachypnea
includes nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx Upper Respiratory Tract
includess the larynx, trachea bronchial tree and lungs Lower Respiratory Tract
seperates nasal cavity into left and right halves. Composed of bone and cartilage Nasal Septum
bones that curl out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Support the mucous membrane which line the cavity and increase the surface area Nasal Conchae
nasal cavity that lines and contains pseudostratified ciliated epithelium rich in goblet cells (mucous secreting cells) Mucous Membrane
sepcialized epithelial cells located superiorly in teh nasal cavity. Also called chemoreceptors and stimulated by chemicals dessolved in teh mucus of the nasal passages Olfactory Receptor Cells
air filled spaces located within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones. Lightens the skull and act as resonance chambers for sound Paranasal Sinuses
(throat) behind oral cavity and between the nasal cavity and the larynx. Passage for food and air. Divided in 3 parts Pharynx
3 parts of the pharynx Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
area behind the nasal cavity from the nasal septum to the soft palate that house the pharyngeal tonsils Nasopharynx
area from the soft palate to the hyoid bone responsible for passing food to the stomach and air to the lungs. Houses the palatine and lingual tonsils Oropharynx
area located from the hyoid bone to the cricoid cartilage Laryngopharynx
provides a connection to the middle ear and permits equalization of pressure between the external and middle ear Eustachian Tubes
known as the voice box. Composed of catilage, muscle and other connective tissues Larynx
Larynx components Thyroid Cartilage, Cricoid Cartilage, Cricothyroid membrane, Cocal Folds(Cords), Glottis, Epiglottis
the utilization of nutrients by living tissue and cells Assimilation
the movement of nutrients into the circulatory system. Molecules of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol go from inside the intestines into the circulating fluids of the body Absorption
a mass of food and saliva that is ready to be swallowed bolus
a semi-fluid mixture of food and gastric juice chyme
the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of the resulting nutrients by cells digestion
the elimination of indigestible substances from teh ingestion-the taking in of food into the mouth, ie. bowel movement defecation
the process of breaking food down into smaller pieces without altering the chemical composition mechanical digestion
the process of breaking food into simpler chemicals Chemical digestion
length of digestive system 9 meters long (29ft)
2 main groups of digestive system Alimentary canal, Accessory organs
makes up the alimentary canal Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Sm intestine, Lg intestine, Rectum, Anus
makes up the accessory organs Salivary glands, Teeth and toungue, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas
Muscular/irregular shaped tube opens at both ends that passes through the body's ventral cavity by carring food by mixing or propelling movements Alimentary Canal
4 distinct layers of the alimentary canal mucosa(mucous membrane), Submucosa, Muscular layer(muscularis), serous layer(serosa)
this is made up of stratified epithelium tissue, designed for absorption and secretion; it also produces mucous to protect the tissues beneath it. Mucosa (Mucous Membrane)
this is made up of loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves that nourish the surrounding tissues and carry away absorbed. Lacteals carry fat from here. Submucosa
a longitudinal and circular layer of muscle that produce movement within the tube. Also known as the thickest layer Muscular layer
the outer covering of the tube. the cells of this layer produce serous fluid which provide moisture and lubrication so the organs within the abdominal cavity slide freely against one another Serous Layer
Rhythmical contractions of the smooth muscles in small segments of the tube. ei, full stomach-waves of muscular contractions Mixing movements
wave-like motion that propels food through the alimentary canal townard the anal sphincter. a ring of muscle contracts and then relaxes; involuntary Peristalsis
these prevent food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity above the mouth when food is swallowed uvula, soft palate
three main parts of the tooth crown, neck, root
three pairs of salivary glands parotid, submandibular, sublingual
two sets of teeth 20 Deciduaus(6 mo) & 32 Permanent (6 yr)
gland that secretes 1 liter per day to moisten food particles, and begins the chemical digestion of carbs Salivary Glands
Two types of secretory cells within the salivary glands Serous, Mucous
cells that secrete amylase which begins the chemical digestion of carbs Serous Cells
cells that secrete mucous which binds the food particles and act as a lubricant during swallowing Mucous Cells
largest of the salivary glads that secretes amylase Parotid
smallest of the slivary glads that secretes mucous Subligual
an opening in the diaphragm esophageal hiatus
prevents stomach contents from regurgitating back into the esophagus esophageal/cardiac sphincter
three areas of the stomach Fundus, body, pyloric region
temporary storage area of the stomach fundus
main part of the stomach that uses rogae to create chyme body
emptying of chyme from stomch and ends with the pyloric sphincter. connects to the duodenum pyloric region
function are to begin the breakdown of proteins and formation of chyme Stomach
contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes that function in the digestive system Gastric secretion/juices
types fo secretory cells in teh gastric secretion goblet, chief, and parietal
produces mucous for protection Goblet cells
produces digestive enzyme. Secretes pepsinogen that activates hydrochloric acid (HCI3) and froms pepsin to break down protiens Chief cells
secretes hydrocloric acid(HCI3) to develope the intrinstic factor-helps small intestine absorb Vit B12 Parietal Cells
Has both endocrine and exocrine. Is an accesory organ that contains sodium bicarbonate that neutralizes the hydrochloric acid Pancreas
function involves the secretion of the digestive juice called pancreatic juice Exocrine
function invovles the secretion of insulin Endocrine
Most important digestive juice Pancreatic Juice
produces and secretes bile into the gallbladder and small intestine Liver
duct that the two lobes of the liver are divided into Hepatic duct
is responsible for the emulsification of fate and is stored in the gallbladder bile
stores bile Gallbladder
tubular organ about 6 meters (20ft) long complete digestion fo the nutrients in chyme and transports remaining residues to the Lg intestines Small intestines
three divisions of the Sm intestines Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
shortest and most fixed portion of the sm intestines and connected to the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Most work of digestion in here! Duodenum
proximal 2/5 of the free, mobile portion of the sm intestines Jejunum
Joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve Ileum
Double layered peritoneal membrane that suspends the small intestines from the posterior abdomin Mesentery
Lymphatic vessel located in the villus Lacteal
1.5 metter (5ft) long that absorbs water and electrolytes from chyme. Forms and stores feces Lg intestine
First part of the lg intestine that is a pouch-like structure that hangs slightly below the ileocecal opening Cecum
serves as a temporary storage site for undigested material before defecation Rectum
2 sphincter muscles in the anus internal, external
smooth muscle under involuntary control in anus Internal anal sphincter
skeletal muscle under voluntary control in anus External anal sphincter
an "acidic" solution has a pH less that 7 Acid
Negative charged ions Anion
An alkaline (base) solution has a pH greater that 7 Base (Alkali)
Prevents major changes in pH and acts as a sponge Buffer systems
Positive charged ions Cation
Co2 Carbon dioxide
C3H6o3 Lactic acid
HCO3 bicarbonate
H2CO3 Carbonic acid
defined as balance Homeostasis
H+ Hydrogen
An atom or group of atoms bonded that have lost or gained one or more electrons ion
loss of electrons by a molecule, atom, or ion Oxidation
power of hydrogen pH
gain of electrons by a molecule, atom, or ion Reduction
Normal blood pH range 7.35-7.45
Waste products from Aerobic metabolism CO2, water
makes body more acidic more hydrogen
makes body more alkaline less hydrogen
type of metabolism is quite inefficient and needs no O2. Metablolizes glycogen to pyruvate and lactate Anaerobic metabolism
oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur results Sulfuric acid
breakdown of proteins results Phosphoric acid
3 ways to balance pH levels Buffering systems, Lungs, and Kidneys
3 main systems of the buffer system Sodium Bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer, Phosphate buffer, Protein buffer
chemical compounds that function in teh body to minimize changes in pH by converting strong acids and bases to weak acids and bases Buffers
Primary buffer system active in ICF and ECF. Known as a Blood buffer Sodium Bicarbonate buffer
only active in ICF (intracellular fluid) Phosphate buffer
Largest buffer store active in ECF and ICF Protein buffer
Measured by PaCO2 (partial pressure CO2) and has a rapid response Respiratory Regulation
Measured by HCO3 and has a slow response Renal Regulation
Primary cause or orgin of acid-base imbalances Metabolic, Respiratory
changes brought about by systemic alteration (cellular level) Metobolic
Changes brought about by respiratory alterations Respiratory
pH falls below 7.35, increase in blood carbonic acid or decrease in bicarbonate Acidosis
pH greater that 7.45, increase in bicarbonate or decrease in carbonic acid Alkalosis
Evaluate metabolic indicators Bicarbonate (HCO3) 22-26
Evaluate respiratory indicators partial pressure CO2 (PaCO2) 35-45
Created by: daniellebulluss