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APES #5 Water

review agriculture topics

agroforestry Planting trees and crops together.
alley cropping Planting of crops in strips with rows of trees or shrubs on each side.
animal manure Dung and urine of animals used as a form of organic fertilizer.
aquaculture Growing and harvesting of fish and shellfish for human use in freshwater ponds, irrigation ditches, and lakes, or in cages or fenced-in areas of coastal lagoons and estuaries.
chronic undernutrition An ongoing condition suffered by people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy need.
commercial inorganic fertilizer Commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields.
compost Partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer.
conservation-tillage farming Crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little (minimum-tillage farming) or not at all (no-till farming) to reduce soil erosion, lower labor costs, and save energy.
contour farming Plowing and planting across the changing slope of land, rather than in straight lines, to help retain water and reduce soil erosion.
conventional-tillage farming Crop cultivation method in which a planting surface is made by plowing land, breaking up the exposed soil, and then smoothing the surface.
crop rotation Planting a field, or an area of a field, with different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion. A plant such as corn, tobacco, or cotton, which removes large amounts of nitrogen from the soil, is planted one year. The next year a legume
desertification Conversion of rangeland, rain-fed cropland, or irrigated cropland to desertlike land, with a drop in agricultural productivity of 10% or more. It usually is caused by a combination of overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought, and climate change.
famine Widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area because of a shortage of food, usually caused by drought, war, flood, earthquake, or other catastrophic events that disrupt food production and distribution.
feedlot Confined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock.
fertilizer Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation.
fish farming Form of aquaculture in which fish are cultivated in a controlled pond or other environment and harvested when they reach the desired size.
fish ranching Form of aquaculture in which members of a fish species such as salmon are held in captivity for the first few years of their lives, released, and then harvested as adults when they return from the ocean to their freshwater birthplace to spawn.
fishery Concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.
food security Every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.
fungicide Chemical that kills fungi.
green manure Freshly cut or still-growing green vegetation that is plowed into the soil to increase the organic matter and humus available to support crop growth.
green revolution Popular term for introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, maize) that, with high enough inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.
gully erosion Occurs when rivulets of fast-flowing water join together to cut wider and deeper ditches or gullies.
herbicide Chemical that kills a plant or inhibits its growth.
high-input agriculture Same as industrialized agriculture.
hunger Suffered when people cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs.
industrialized agriculture Using large inputs of energy from fossil fuels (especially oil and natural gas), water, fertilizer, and pesticides to produce large quantities of crops and livestock for domestic and foreign sale.
inorganic fertilizer Same as commercial inorganic fertilizer.
insecticide Chemical that kills insects.
integrated pest management (IPM) Combined use of biological, chemical, and cultivation methods in proper sequence and timing to keep the size of a pest population below the size that causes economically unacceptable loss of a crop or livestock animal.
intercropping Growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot. For example, a carbohydrate-rich grain that depletes soil nitrogen and a protein-rich legume that adds nitrogen to the soil may be intercropped.
interplanting Simultaneously growing a variety of crops on the same plot.
land degradation Occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species.
low-input agriculture Same as sustainable agriculture.
malnutrition Faulty nutrition, caused by a diet that does not supply an individual with enough protein, essential fats, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients needed for good health.
manure Same as animal manure, green manure.
metabolism Ability of a living cell or organism to capture and transform matter and energy from its environment to supply its needs for survival, growth, and reproduction.
micronutrients Chemical elements that organisms need in small or even trace amounts to live, grow, or reproduce. Examples are sodium, zinc, copper, chlorine, and iodine.
minimum-tillage farming Same as conservation-tillage farming.
monoculture Cultivation of a single crop, usually on a large area of land.
no-till farming Same as conservation-tillage farming.
organic farming Producing crops and livestock naturally by using organic fertilizer (manure, legumes, compost) and natural pest control (bugs that eat harmful bugs, plants that repel bugs, and environmental controls such as crop rotation) instead of using commercial inor
organic fertilizer Organic material such as animal manure, green manure, and compost, applied to cropland as a source of plant nutrients.
overnutrition Diet so high in calories, saturated (animal) fats, salt, sugar, and processed foods and so low in vegetables and fruits that the consumer runs high risks of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and other health hazards.
pest Unwanted organism that directly or indirectly interferes with human activities.
pesticide Any chemical designed to kill or inhibit the growth of an organism that people consider undesirable.
plantation agriculture Growing specialized crops such as bananas, coffee, and cacao in tropical developing countries, primarily for sale to developed countries.
polyculture Complex form of intercropping in which a large number of different plants maturing at different times are planted together.
polyvarietal cultivation Planting a plot of land with several varieties of the same crop.
salinization Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.
sheet erosion Occurs when surface water or wind peel off fairly thin sheets or layers of soil.
shelterbelt Same as windbreak.
shifting cultivation Clearing a plot of ground in a forest, especially in tropical areas, and planting crops on it for a few years (typically 2-5 years) until the soil is depleted of nutrients or the plot has been invaded by a dense growth of vegetation from the surrounding f
slash-and-burn cultivation Cutting down trees and other vegetation in a patch of forest, leaving the cut vegetation on the ground to dry, and then burning it. The ashes that are left add nutrients to the nutrient-poor soils found in most tropical forest areas. Crops are planted bet
soil conservation Methods used to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients already lost by erosion, leaching, and excessive crop harvesting.
soil erosion Movement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind, flowing water, or both. This natural process can be greatly accelerated by human activities that remove vegetation from soil.
strip cropping Planting regular crops and close-growing plants, such as hay or nitrogen-fixing legumes, in alternating rows or bands to help reduce depletion of soil nutrients.
subsistence farming Supplementing solar energy with energy from human labor and draft animals to produce enough food to feed oneself and family members; in good years enough food may be left over to sell or put aside for hard times.
sustainable agriculture Method of growing crops and raising livestock based on organic fertilizers, soil conservation, water conservation, biological pest control, and minimal use of nonrenewable fossil-fuel energy.
terracing Planting crops on a long, steep slope that has been converted into a series of broad, nearly level terraces with short vertical drops from one to another that run along the contour of the land to retain water and reduce soil erosion.
traditional intensive agriculture Producing enough food for a farm family's survival and perhaps a surplus that can be sold. This type of agriculture uses higher inputs of labor, fertilizer, and water than traditional subsistence agriculture.
traditional subsistence agriculture Production of enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival and, in good years, a surplus to sell or put aside for hard times.
undernutrition Consuming insufficient food to meet one's minimum daily energy needs for a long enough time to cause harmful effects.
waterlogging Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to the surface.
windbreak Row of trees or hedges planted to partially block wind flow and reduce soil erosion on cultivated land.
Created by: jweiland1