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68WM6 A&P5 Nutrition

nurtrition

QuestionAnswer
the total of all processes involved in taking in and using food substances for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance of health Nutrition
Role of the nurse in promoting nutrition Help the pt understand the importance of the diet, and encourage diet. Assist some pt with eating. Take and record pt weights. Record intakes(calorie intake). Observe clinical signs of poor nutrition and report them.
Symbolizes a person's personalized approach to a healthy diet and physical activity My Pyramid
Developed for ages 2 to adulthood to address the importance of adequate nutrition, as well as the prevention of overnutrition and chronic disease. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Refer to a set of nutrient-based values that serve both assessing and planning diets Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
A chemical compound or element cound in food that is necessary for good health Nutrient
Nutrients that our bodies are not able to make in the amounts essential for good health, but obtained through diet or other sources Essential nutrients
Fuctions of nutrients provide energy, build and repair tissue, and regulate body processes
Six classes of essential nutrients carbs, fats, protiens, vitamins, minerals, and water
measurement of energy, much as a pound is a measurement of weight kilocalorie (kcal)
Main function is to provide energy and can be classified as either simple or complex Carbs
Carbs with only one sugar unit Monosaccharides
Carbs with 2 or more long chains of sugar unit Polysacchaarides
A polysaccharide that is the body's storage form of carbs and found mainly in the liver Glycogen
Nondigestible chemical substances found in plants Dietary Fiber
If the body meets the energy needs, it will store carbs as this. Once it is full, the body will convert excess of carbs to fat and store them in the adipose tissue Glycogen
Group of organic substances of a fatty nature that are insoluble in water and necessary for good health Lipids
A feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food Satiety
A three-carbon chain with three fatty acids attached to it Triglyceride
Fatty acid where the chemical bonds are completely filled with hydrogen Saturated fatty acids
Fatty acid with one or more places on it chemical chain where hydrogen is missing Unsaturated fatty acids
Process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it more solid and stable and less susceptible to becoming rancid Hydrogenation
A fat-soluble sterol found in animal fats and oils, organ meats, and egg yolk. Synthesized in liver Cholesterol
The building blocks out of which proteins are constructed; end product of protein digestion Amino Acids
The building and repairing phase of metabolism. Energy is released from catabolism and allows the cells to build more complex Anabolism
A psychoneurotic disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat Anorexia Nervosa
Amount of energy used by the body at rest to maintain vital functions such as respiration, circulation, temperature, peristalsis, and muscle tone. Measured prior to eating and activity is most accurate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
An estimate used to determine if a person may be at risk because of excessive weight Body Mass Index (BMI)
An eating disorder involving an insatiable craving for food, often resulting in continual eating followed by periods for depression, self-deprivation, and purging Bulimia Nervosa
The breakdown or destructive phase of metabolism when complex body substances are broken down to simpler ones Catabolism
Combination of profuse perspiration, nausea, vertigo, diarrhea, and weakness. May occur after a partial or total gastrectomy or gastric bypass Dumping Syndrom
Administration of nutrients into the GI tract, usually referred to tube feeding Enteral Nutrition
Molecules made of lipid surrounded by protein Lipoprotein
The use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness, injury, or condition. Involves modifying the diet in order to meet the nutrition requirments created by disease or injury Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT)
Foods providing a high quality of one or more nutrients in a small number of calories. large amounts of nutrients realtive to kcal Nutrient-Dense Foods
Abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells, mainly in the viscera(soft part, internal organs) and subcutaneous tissues of the body Obesity
Administrating nutrients by route other than the alimentary canal, such intravenously Parenteral Nutrition (Hyperalimentation)
A progressive macrocytic megaloblastic anemia usually related to inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of vitamins B12 Pernicious Anemia
Food, fiber, bacteria, body secretions, and other substances that remain in the colon after digestion is completed Residue
A diet used as a medical treatment that may be modified for nutrient content, texture, consistency, or meal frequency Therapeutic Diet
The administration of a hypertonic solution into a large central vein, usually the superior vena cava, via a catheter threaded through either the subclavian or inter jugular vein Total Parenteral Nutrition
The administration of nutritionally balanced liquefied foods or formula into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum by way of a feeding tube Tube Feeding
Strict vegetarian who eliminates all foods of animal origin from their diet Vegan
the cholesterol found in the bloodstream serum cholesterol
Vision, reproduction, immune system, growth Vitamin A
Maintains blood, calcium Vitamin D
Antioxidant, protection of cell membrane Vitamin E
Formation of blood clotting factors Vitamin K
Nucleic acid synthesis, amino acid, metabolism Folic Acid
New cell synthesis, maintenance of nerve cells Vitamin B12
Antioxident, immunity, wound healing, tissue growth Vitamin C
part of hemoglobin and and myoglobin, necessary for oxygen, energy for metabolism Iron
Part of enzymes that are involved in metabolism Zinc
makes up approximately 60% of adults and 80% of infant weight water
name of source of energy such as carbs, protiens, and fats macronutrients
name for vitamins and minerals micronutrients
fat soluble vitamins? ADEK- vit.A, vit.D, vit.E, and vit.K
water requirements vary depending on what three things? age, exercise, and health
fiber that dissolves in water and turns into a gel-like substance, slows down rate of digestion, and decreases rate of blood sugar absorbtion soluble fiber
fiber that is non-digestible bulk that does not dissolve in water, is a natural laxative and helps promote regularity insoluble fiber
this includes plant foods plus dairy products Lacto vegetarian
this includes plant and dairy foods plus eggs Lacto-ovo vegetarian
Anatomy of the My Pyramid Activity, Proportion, Variety, Gradual Improvement, Personalization, Moderation
amount of calories needed during pregnancy 300 additional a day during 2nd and 3rd trimesters
recommended weight during pregnancy for normal weight 25-35
recommended weight during pregnancy for overweight 15-25
recommended weight during pregnancy for obese 15
recommended weight during pregnancy for underweight 28-40
A neural tube defect that partial or complete absence of a baby's brain due to not enough folic acid Anencephaly
Opening in the spinal cord or brain that occurs eary early in human development but can be prevented with adequate folic acid intake Neural Tube Defects
An opening of the spine that may need a shunt Spina Bifida
craving and/or consuming non-food and non-nutritive items Pica
Condition a woman has elevated blood sugar levels and has never been diagnosed of diabetes until pregnancy Gestational Diabetes
When breast feeding is not an option, an infant should be fed this iron-fortified infant formula
Period of the most rapid growth and development infancy
purpose is to supply fluid, electrolytes, and energy in a form that requires minimal digestion and stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract Clear liquid diet
purpose is a transitional diet from clear liquid to solid foods and is a more nutritionally complete diet than clear liquids Full liquid diet
purpose is to provide food and fluids for pts who are unable to chew, swallow, or tolerate solid foods. Blenderized liquid diet
purpose is to provide texture-modified foods that require minimal chewing Mechanically altered diet
disturbance in the normal transfer of food from the oral cavity to the stomach dysphagia
purpose is to provide adequate energy, nutrients and fluids in a consistency safely tolerated and to prevent malnutrition dysphagia diet
purpose is to provide adequate energy and nutrients to support tissue healing and to minimize reflux, dumping syndrome, and weight loss (just went through gastic surgery) postgastrectomy diet
purpose is to reduce excessive ostomy output and minimizes gas and unpleasant odors. Long term Enteral route. (previously had a colostomy surgery) Ostomy diet
purpose to provide energy and nutrients in excess of usual requirements in order to improve overall nutritional status high-calorie, high-protien diet
purpose is to slow the build-up of wastes in the bloodstream and control symptoms associated with kidney failure renal diet
formula for BMI Wt(in kg)/Ht 2 (in m)
1 CHO choice = 15 grams CHO
pancreas is not producing any insulin, pt dependent on insulin Type I diabetes
insufficient insulin produced by the pancreas or the body does not properly use insulin Type II diabetes
Elevated blood glucose levels but not high enough to carry a diagnosis of diabetes Prediabetes
waxy fat-like substance found in the blood stream cholesterol
normal cholesterol level <200 mg/dl
normal HDL >40 mg/dl
normal LDL <100 mg/dl
normal Triglycerides <150 mg/dl
limits sodium and encourages adequate intake of calcium, magnesium, and potassium DASH
BP at 140/90 or higher hypertension
professionals who aid in the provision of nutritional support physician, dietitian, pharmacist, nurse
goals of nutritional support prevent malnutrition, restore optimal nutritional status, aid in recovery
goals of NST identify risks, asses needs, provide support, and determine therapy for long- and short-term
Writes orders and responsible for nutritional care of patient physician
completes nutritional assessment, route of therapy and documents the response to therapy dietitian
evaluates patient for drug-nutrient interactions pharmacist
documents delivery, time, rate of nutrients and monitors pt's tolerance of support nurse
Result oft he action between a drug and a nutrient that would not happen with the nutrient or drug alone Drug-Nutrient Interaction (DNI)
Administered when all or part of GI tract is fuctional and is for short or full time Tube Feeding
Surgically created openings through which a feeding tube may pass Ostomy
Types of tube feeding administration Continuous, Intermittent, Bolus
feeding via feeding pump anywhere for critically ill pts Continuous
rapid infusion over 30-60 min several times a day via gravity bag and usually administered in the stomach Intermittent
Rapid infusion several times per day via syringe and administered into stomach with most stable patients Bolus
administered in small peripheral veins and short term PPN Peripheral parenteral nutrition
administer in large central vein and long term TPN Total Parenteral nutrition
States monitoring and preventing potential DNI for in-house and discharge drugs, providing education and documenting comprehension of pt Joint commission
a vitamin, mineral, herb, botanical, amino acid, metabloite, constituent, extract or a combination of any of these ingredients Dietary supplement
Act that states supplement manufacturers are responsible for ensuring they are safe and taking appropriate action against any unsafety after it is put in the market Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
Created by: daniellebulluss